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Bio 103 Chapter 6

Each significant properties of a cell requires


Energy is defined as

the ability to do work

Free energy, is the difference b/t the internal energy or enthalpy and ___ or disorder


The process of influencing the chemical bonds in a way that lowers the ___ needed to speed up a chemical reaction, catalysis.


Enzymes work most effectively at


Certain key molecules can regulate biochemical pathways by controlling the rates of enzymatic reactions by biding at ___ sites


A series of sequential chemical reactions which are maintained in the cell are called:

biochemical pathways

A chemical reaction which requires energy is called an ___ reactions.


A molecule that closely resembles the shape of a substrate for an enzyme might serve as a


Oxidation and reduction reactions are chemical processes that result in a gain or loss in


reactions that occur spontaneously and release free energy are called

exergonic reactions

A chemical reactioin in which the products contain less energy than the ___ will tend to proceed spontaneously.


Protein catalysts that speed up the various metabolic biological reactions in an organism are called


Enzymes have specific ___ with which they interact


The active site is shaped so that only a certain

substrate molecule can fit into it

The inorganic non-protein components that participate in enzyme catalysis are known as

Go factors

The cheif energy currency of all cells is a molecule called


The chemistry of living systems representng all chemical reactions is called


A calorie is the commonly used unit of chemical energy, it is also the unit of


The term oxidation is derived from the name of the element oxygen. This reasonable, because oxygen

attracts electrons very strongly

When an atom or molecule gains one or more electrons, it is said to be


Life's ultimate source of energy is derived from

the sun

As energy is being reconverted through the many forms, it is continuosly lost as


Reactions that do not proceed spontaneously because they require energy from an outside source called


Molecules that act as catalysts in biological systems are


Enzymes catalyze chemical reactions by lowering the

activation energy

In an enzyme catalyzed reaction the reactant is called the


The sites where molecules othe than substrates bind in an enzyme to alter its activity are called __ sites


One of the most important coenzymes that accepts electrons/hydrogens is


ATP gives up energy when it is converted to

ADP & phosphate

The regualation of simple biochemical pathways often involves the end product binding to the allosteric site of the first enzyme in the sequence, called

competitive inhibition

The First Law of Thermodynamics simply states

Energy can be neither created or destroyed

The Second Law of Thermoydynamics simply states

"high entropy"

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