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Early childhood

The major psychosocial accomplishment of early childhood is learning _____________
This ability is called _______________

when and how to express emotions; emotional regulation

Between 3 and 6 yrs of age according to Erikson, children are in the stage of ______________ ________ ________. In the process, they develop a positive _______-________ and feelings of ________ in their accomplishments

initiative versus guilt; self-concept; pride

Children also develop a longer _________span that enables concentration, which is made possible by ____________ maturity. And they develop naive predictions, called _____ ______ , which helps them try new things.

attention; neurological; protective optimism

Erikson also believed that during this stage, children begin to feel ___________ when they realize their own mistakes. Many people believe that _______ is a more mature emotion than ______ because the former emotion is ____________.

guilt; guilt; shame; internalized

For the most part, children enjoy learning, playing and practicing for their own joy; that is, they are _______ _____. The importance of this type of motiviation is seen when children invent and converse with __________ __________.

intrinsically motivated; imaginary friends

Motivation that comes from the outside is called ______- ________. Providing reinforcement for something a person already enjoys doing _____________ (stregthens/may diminish) intrinsic motiviation.

extrinsic motivation; may diminish

Emotional regulation ______________ (is/is not) valued in all cultures. Cultures ___________ (differ/generally do not differ) in the emotions considered most in need of control.

is; differ

An illness or disorder that involves the mind is called ___________. Children who have ____________ problems and lash out at other people or things are said to be "_______________' (overcontrolled/undercontrolled). Children who ______________- problems tend to be inhibited, fearful, and withdrawn.

psychopathology; externalizing;undercontrolled;internalizing

Girls generally are better than boys at regulating their _____(internalizing/externalizing) emotions, but they are less successful with ______________ones. For both sexes, though, extreme reactions predict future _____________.


Neurological advances in the brain's _____ ______ are partly responsible for the greater capacity for selfcontrol that occurs at about age _____________.

prefrontal cortex; 4 or 5

Neurological vulnerability and parents who maltreat them combine to lead to ________________.

dysregulated emotions

Neurological and hormonal effects may make boys more likely to ___________ and girls more likely to ___________, difference that it is probably ____________.


According to Erikson, 3 yr old Samantha is incapable of feeling guilt because

guilt depends on a sense of self, which is not sufficiently established in young children
Erikson did not equate gender constancy with the emergency of guilt

3 yr old Ali, who is fearful and withdrawn in displaying signs of __________ problems which suggest that he is emotionally _____________.

Internalizing; overcontrolled.
Usually with maturity extreme fears and shyness diminish.

Summarizing her report on neurological aspects of emotional regulation. Alycia notes that young children who have externalizing problems tend to lack neurological maturity in the brain's ______________ _________.

prefrontal cortex.
Emotional regulation requires thinking before acting, which is the province of the prefrontal cortex. Lack of maturity results in externalizing problems.

Young children play best with a _______that is, people of about the same_____ and ______- __________.

peer: age; social status

As children grow older, play becomes more ____ and more affected by their ______________ __________ and culture.

social; physical setting

Another cultural shift that has changed the nature of children's play is the increasing prevalence of _______ which has resulted in their displaying advanced _________- _________.

television; sexual awareness

The devleopmentalist who distinquished five kinds of play is _______________. These include _______________play, in which a child plays alone; ____________play, in which a child watches other children play; _________________ play, in which children play together without interacting; _____play, in which children interact, but their play is not yet mutual and reciprocal; and ____play, in which children play together and take turns.

Mildred Parten; solitary;
onlooker; parallel; associative; cooperative

Active play correlates with ______acceptance and a healthy _________. The type of active play that looks rough is called __________ - _________-_______________ play.
A distinctive feature of this form of play, which ___________ (occurs only in some cultures/is universal), is the positive facial expression that characterizes the "__________-_____________". This type of play advances and ___________and ________ _________.

peer;self-concept;rough-and-tumble; is universal; play face; planning ;self control'

In _____________play, children act out various roles and plots in stories of their own creation. This type of play helps them to explore and rehearse _______ ____ roles and to develop _____________in a non threatening context for example.

sociodramatic social roles; self-concept

guilt is associated with the resolution of the Electra complex, which occurs later in life.

Did Erikson think that a 3 yr old is incapable of feeling guilt - Yes

Solitary play

playing alone. A girl playing with her doll in her room or a boy with his truck.

Onlooker play: watching other children play

sitting on a bench in the playground watching children on the see-saw

Parallel play

playing with similar toys in similar ways, but not together. Two girls playing with their own dolls indifferent areas of a dollhouse or two boys building blocks.

Associative play

interactive play, but not yet mutual and reciprocal. A group of children drawing with crayons.

Cooperative play

playing together. Playing tag?

Rough-an-tumble play

mimicking aggression but without intent to harm. Imitating a boxing match.

Sociodramatic play

acting out various roles and themes in stories they create. Pretend-racing cars or playing house

Although Juvaria and Brittany are sharing drawing materials and watching each other, their play is not yet mutual or reciprocal. Mildred Parten would probably classify this type of play as ___________. play

parallel play

24. A significant influence on early psychosocial growth is the style of _____ that characterizes a child's family life


The early research on parenting styles, which was conducted by _____________, found that parents varied in four dimensions; their expressions of _____, their strategies for ____________, their ____________, and their expectations for __________.

Diana Baumrind; warmth; discipline; communication; maturity

26) Parents who adopt the style demand unquestioning obdience from their children. In this style of parenting, nurturance tends to be _____ (low/high) maturity demand are ________(low/high), and parent-child communication tends to be ________ (low/high).

authoritarian; low ; high ; low

Parents who adopt the __________ style set limits and enforce rules but also listen to their children. Such parents make ___ (high/low) maturity demands, communicate ______(well/poorly) and _____ (are/are not ) nurturant.


Parents who are indifferent toward their children have adopted the _____________/_______________


30) Although this classification is generally regarded as ______ (very useful, too simplistic), follow -up studies indicate that children raised by _______parents are likely to be obedient but unhappy and those raised by ____parents are likely to lack self-control. Those raised by_______ parents are more likely to be articulate, successful, happy with themselves, and generous with others.

too simplistic; authoritarian; permissive;authoritative

An important factor in the effectiveness of parenting style in the child's __________


Culture _______________ (exterts/does not exert) a strong influence on disciplinary techniques. However, discipline methods and family rules are less important than parental _________ ________ and ______.

exerts; warmth, support and concern

__________factors may be more important than ethnic ones. Also, culture and family patterns change with __________and ____________.

Socioeconomic; time; place

34) All media can be harmful, especially when the content is ___________.


Six major american organizations concerned with the well-being of children urge parents to reduce __________ ___________

television watching

Most young children in the US spend more than _____ (how many?) hours each day using some sort of media.


The new media are not always harmful. Some children may learn basic ______from educational programs, especially if their parents watch with them and ____________ the lessons.

literacy; reinforce

According to the ___________ hypothesis, whatever time children devote to elecronic media reduces time spent in _______________ and _________activities.

displacement ; social; education

Yolanda and Tom are strict and aloof parents. Their children are most likely to be

obedient, but unhappy
Authoritarian parents have behavior standards and require obedience without question. So their children to be obedient but unhappy.

which is NOT a feature of parenting used by Baumrind to differentiate authoritarian, permissive, and authoritive parent. 1) maturity demands for he the child's conduct 2) efforts to control the child's actions 3) nurturance 4) adherence to sterotypical gender rolls.

4adherence to sterotypical gender roles
Baumrind's categories have nothing to do with gender roles

What are the features of parenting used by Baumrind to differentiate authoritarian, permissive, and authoritive parents?

maturity demands for the child's conduct
efforts to control the chilid's action

The ability to truly understand the emotions of another, called _____ often leads to sharing, helping, and other examples of ______ behaviors. In contrast, dislike for others, or ____________, may lead to actions that are destructive or deliberately hurtful. such actions are called __________ ______________.

empathy; prosocial behaviors; antipathy; antisocial behavior

By age ____ or ____, most children can be deliberately prosocial or antisocial. This occurs as a result of ________maturation, ____________ regulation, ________ ______- ______, and interactions with ___________.

4 or 5; brain; emotional; theory of mind; caregivers

Developmentalists distinquish four types of aggression: _I____________, used to obtain or retain an object or privilege; R_____________, used in angry retaliation against an intentional or accidental act committed by a peer; _R_____________, which takes the form of insults or social rejection; and _B______________, used in an unprovoked attack on peer.

instumental; reactive; relational; bullying

(text and table 10.3) The form of aggression that often increases from age 2 to 6 is __________ ___________. Of greater concern are ______________ _________., because it can indicate a lack of ____ _______and _______ ________, which is most worrisome overall.

instumental aggression; reactive aggression; emotional regulation; bullying aggression.

(table 10.4) state four specific recommendations for the use of discipline that are derived from developmental research finding:

1)Remember theory of mind
2) Remember egocentrism
3) Remember fast-mapping.
4) Remember that young children are not logical

Physical punishment _____ (seems to increase/does not seem to increase) the possibiliity of long-term aggression and __________ (temporarily increases/has no effect on) obedience.

seems to increase; temporarily increases

Another method of discipline, in which children's guilt and gratitude are used to control their behavior, is ____________ ___________. This method of discipline has been linked to children's decreased _______________, _______________, and ________acceptance.

psychological control; achievement;creativitiy;social

The disciplinary technique most often used in North America is the __________-___________in which a misbehaving child is asked to sit quietly without toys or playmates. Experts suggest a period of __________________ (how many?) minute(s) for each year of the child's age.

time-out; one

Another common practice involves the parents explaining to the child why the behavior was wrong, called ___________________.


50) Seeking to discipline her 3 yr old son for snatching a playmate's toy, Cassandra gently says, "How would you feel if Juwan grabbed your car?" Developmentalists would probably say that Cassandra's approach.

will be effective in increasing prosocial behavior because it promotes empathy.

When 4 yr old Seema grabs for Vincenzo's Beanie Baby, Vincenzo slaps her hand away, displaying an example of ________aggression.

instumental. This kind of aggression involves trying to get or keep something someone else has as Seema is doing here.

52) 5 yr old curtis, who is above average in height and weight, often picks on children who are smaller than he is. Curtis' behavior is an example of ___________________aggression

This kind of aggression involves repeated, unprovoked physical or verbal attack on other people.

4 yr old Eboni shows signs of distrust toward strangers. Eboni's behavior is an example of ____________


54) Social scientists distinquish between biological, or ___________, differences between males and females, and cultural, or ________, differences in the _____and behavior of males and females that are prescribed by the culture.


55) By age ______, children can consistently apply gender labels. By age ____, children are convienced that certain toys are appropriate for one gender but not the other.


56) Freud called the period from age 3 to 6 the ___________ ____________. According to his view, boys in this stage develop sexual feeings about their ________ and become jelous of their ___________. Freud called this phenomenon the ____________ _________. Boys also develop, in self-defense, a powerful conscience called the ________________.

phallic stage; mothers; fathers; oeidpus complex; superego

During the phallic stage, little girls may experience the ______________ ____________, in which they want to get rid of their mother and become intimate with their father.

electra complex

58) According to psychoanalytic theory, children of both sexes resolve their guilt and fear through ________ with their same-sex parent.


59) According to behaviorism, young children develop a sense of gender by being _______ for behaviors deemed appropriate for their sex and _______ for behaviors deemed inappropriate.

reinforced; punished

Behaviorists also maintain that children learn gender-appropriate behavior not only through direct reinforcement but also through ______________.

social learning

61) Cognitive theorists focus on children's _________of male-female differences. This understanding is called a _________ _____________.

understanding; gender schema

62) Sexual attraction is crucial for humankind's most basic urge, reproduction, according to _________ theory.


63) The behaviors appropriate for each gender are determined by culture, not by biology, according to the ______ theory. This theory points out that some of the distinctions are tied to general patterns of _____ _________.

sociocultural; social organization

64) Therefore, _________ theory would encourage male-female differences, and ______________ theory would conclude that sex differences are __________if they interfere with other values.

evolutionary; sociocultural; changeable

65) The idea that a person should combine the best of both sexes is referred to as _________________.


66) Bonita eventually copes with the fear and anger she feels over her hatred of her mother and love of her father by

identifying with her mother
According to psychoanalytic theory, children identify with the same-sex parents because of their guilt in hating that parent.

A little girl who says she wants her mother to go on vacation so that she can marry her father is voicing a fantasy consistent with the _____________described by Freud.

Electra complex.
Resolution of this complex results in the identification noted in 66.

Leonardo believes that almost all sexual patterns are learned rather than inborn. He is clearly a strong adherent of ____________

Behaviorism believe that children learn through rewards and punishments

69) In explaining the origins of gender distinctions, Dr. Christie notes that every culture teaches its children its values and attitudes regarding preferred behavior for men and women. Dr. Christie is evidental a proponent of _____________

Sociocultural theory.
Sociaoculutural theoriest contend that children learn from their culture, not biology.

1) Young children have a clear (but not necessarily accurate) concept of self. Typically, they believe that they

are great at almost everything

According to Freud, the third stage of psychosexual development, during which the penis is the focus of psychological concern and pleasure, is the

phallic stage

Girls generally are better than boys at regulating their

externalizing emotions

What theoriest believe that the oral and anal stages are associated with infant development. What is the theory?

Freud's theory

Traditional is a variation of the basic styles. Indulgent and neglecting are abusive styles and clearly harmful, unlike the styles initially identified by Baumrind


The three basic patterns of parenting described by Diana Baumrind are

1) authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative

5) Authoritative parents are receptive and loviing, but they also normally

set limits and enforce rules with diplomatic relationship with children.

Authoritative parent communicate very well and (are/are not) quite affectionate.


6) Emotional regulation is most accurately defined as

the ability to control when and how emotions are expressed.

(Table 10.3) Between 2 and 6 of age, the form of aggression that is most likely to increase is increase is


8 )During early childhood, a child's self-concept is defined largely by his or her

expanding range of skills and competencies

Behaviorists emphasize the importance of _____ and _______in the development of the preschool child.

praise and blame

10) Children apply gender labels and have definite ideas about how boys and girls behave as early as age ____

2 yrs old

11) Developmentalists agree that punishment should be

rare and limited to behaviors the child understands and can control.

12)Feeling of dislike and even hatred for another person constitute


13) 3 yr old Jake, who lashes out at the family pet in anger, is displaying signs of ____problems, which suggests that he is emotionally _______.

externalizing; undercontrolled

14) (A view from Science) Compared with North American mothers, Japanese mothers are more likely to do all of the following:

use reasoning to control their children's social behavior.
use expressions of disappointment to control their children's social behavior
express empathy for their children.

15) (Table 10.3) When her friend hurts her feelings, 6 yr old Maya shouts that she is a "mean old stinker!" Maya's behavior is an example of _____

relational aggression.

1) According to Diana Baumrind, only authoritarian parents make maturity demands on their children. T/F

All parents make some maturity demands on their children; maturity demands are high in both the authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles.

2) Children of authoritative parents tend to be successful, happy with them-selves,and generous with others.T/F


3) Not until age 4 can children apply gender labels. T/F

age 2

5) Rough and tumble play is more common in Western cultures than in Eastern cultures. T/F

rough-and-tumble play is universal

4) Empathy is the same as sympathy. T/F

empathy is feeling sorry with someone

6) Children can be truly androgynous only if their culture promotes such ideas and practices. T/F


7) Developmentalists do not agree about how children acquire gender roles.T/F


8) Sympathy is feeling sorry for someone T/F


9) Identification was defined by Freud as a means of defending one's self-concept by taking on the attitudes and behaviors of another person. T/F


10) By adolescence, undercontrolled boys may be delinquents


1) Children of permissive parent are MOST likely to lack social skills. T/F


2) Psychosocial accomplishement of early childhood is learning when and how to express emotions. T/F


2a) Developing a sense of initiative and positive self-esteem are aspects of emotional regulation. T/F


developing a sense of identity is the task of adolescence. T/F


3) Which area of the brain plays an important role in the child's greater capacity for self-control that appears at age 4 or 5?

prefrontal cortex

Generally speaking, the motivation of young children

is intrinsic

5) Which of the following best summarizes the current view of developmentalists regarding gender differences?

Developmentalists disagree on the proportion of gender differences that are biological in origin.

6) According to Freud, a young boy's jealousy of his father's relationship with his mother, and the guilt feelings that result,are part of the

Oedipus complex

7) The style of parenting in which the parents make few demands on children,the discipline is lax, and the parents are nurturant and accepting is


7a) Both authoritarian and authoritative parents make higher demands on their children T/F


8) Cooperating with a playmate is to _____ ___________as insulting a playmate is to _______ __________.

prosocial behavior; antisocial behavior

9) Antipathy refers to a person's

feeling of anger or dislike toward another person.


understanding of the emotions of another person.

This describes self-concept

refers to people's understanding of who they

This describes an internalizing problem

tendency to internalize emotions or inhibit their expression.

10) Which of the following theories advocates the development of gender identification as a means of avoiding guilt over feelings for the opposite-sex parent?



includes social learning, emphasizes that chldren learn about gender by rewards and punishments and by observing others.

Sociaocultural theory focuses on

the impact of the environment on gender identification.

11)a parent who wishes to use a time-out to discipline her son for behaving aggressively on the playground would
be advised to

have the child sit quitely indoors for a few minutes

11a) Time-outs involve removing a child from a situation in which misbehavior has occurred. Moreover, these threats of future punishment would likely be less effective because of the delay between the behavior and the consequence. T/F


Although develpmentalists stress the need to prevent misdeeds instead of punishing them and warn that time-outs
may have unintended consequences, they nevertheless can be an effective form of discipline. T/F


The disciplinary technique most often used in North America is


in which style of parenting is the parents' word law and misbehavior strictly punished?


Erikson noted that young children eagerly begin many new activities but are vulnerable to criticism and feelings of failure; they experience the crisis of

initiative versus mistrust

According to Erikson, these are the crises of adolescence and infancy, respectively. T/F

(refer to previous question)

Is efficancy versus helplessness described by Erikson?



understanding the feeling of others


a balance of traditional male and female characteristics in an inidividual


dislike of others

prosocial behavior

action performed for the benefit of another person without the expectation of reward.

antisocial behavior

an action that is intended to harm someone else

Electra complex

Freudian theory that every daughter secretly wishes to replace her mother

Oedipus complex

Freudian theory that every son secretely wishes to repace his father


parenting style associated with high maturity demands and high parent-child communication


parenting style associated with high maturity demands and low parent-child communication


the way children cope with their feelings of guilt during the phallic stage

instrumental aggression

a forceful behavior that is intended to get or keep something that another person has

A balance of traditionally male and female characteristics


a behavior, such as cooperating or sharing, performed to benefit another person without the expectation of a reward


in psychoanalytic theory, the judgemental part of personality that internalizes the moral standards set by parents and society.


Behavior that takes the form of insults or social rejection is called _________aggression.


Act intended to obtain or retain an object desired by another


Style of parenting in which parents make few demands on their chldren, yet are nurturant and accepting and communicate well with their children


Cultural differences in the roles and behaviors of males and females

gender difference

Means of defending one's self-concept by taking on the behaviors and attitudes of someone else


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