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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
History 102 Key Terms
Terms in this set (92)
gatherings of the social, political, and cultural elite in France during the Enlightenment. Happen in private homes, place for people who werent accepted at the coffe house meetings.
had a salon in her house to discuss intelligent ideas. Shows how things finally turn around for the feminists.
Scottish political economist and philosopher. His Wealth of Nations (1776) laid the foundations of classical free-market economic theory, government should not interfere with economics. Advocates Laissez Faire and founder of "invisible hand"
Wealth of Nations
Famous book written by Adam Smith in 1776 advocating a capitalist economic system.
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the CONSENT OF THE GOVERNED and in which the government serves the people; also said people have NATURAL RIGHTS to life, liberty and property.
Theory of Knowledge
written by John Locke. States that any form of geovernment that does not meet the needs of the people should be disbanded.
(1694-1778) French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church.
a French satire first published in 1759 by Voltaire, a philosopher of the Age of Enlightenment.Voltaire ridicules religion, theologians, governments, armies, philosophies, and philosophers.
Frederick the Great
Prussian king of the 18th century; attempted to introduce Enlightenment reforms into Germany; built on military and bureaucratic foundations of his predecessors; introduced freedom of religion; increased state control of economy.
system of government in which absolute monarchs ruled according to the principles of the Enlightenment
People are born free, but old governments oppressed the people. People are better off free. The will of the majority should rule, and the government duty is to reflect the will of the majority. People should obey the common good (what's good for the majority). [gov duty is to reflect the will of the people; and people must follow majority will]
The General Will
a concept in political philosophy referring to the will of the people as a whole. As used by Rousseau, the "general will" is identical to the rule of law.
This German philosopher famously claimed that the motto of the Enlightenment was "Dare to know! Have the courage to use your own intelligence!"
A King or Queen is the official head of state but power is limited by a constitution.
Elizabeth I (Tudor)
England r. 1558-1603 chose a middle route between Catholicism and Protestantism, required subjects to outwardly practice Catholicism but did not care what the actually believed, Elizabethan Settlement
King James I (Stuart)
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1st King of "Great Britain") - claimed to rule by the "divine right of kings" - tried to overpower Parliament
Stuart son of James I and King of England, 1625-49. Beheaded by Roundheads at the end of the Civil War. Charles fought with the Puritan Parliament over his war expenses related to Scotland and Ireland, advancing his belief in the divine-right of kings, and marrying a Catholic, French princess.
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.
English Civil War
Conflict from 1640 to 1660; included religious and constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy; ended with restoration of a limited monarchy.
New Model Army
The disciplined fighting force of Protestants led by Oliver Cromwell in the English civil war.
the reestablishment of the monarchy on the accession (1660) of Charles II after the collapse of the Commonwealth
King of England and Scotland and Ireland during the Restoration (1630-1685)
The Test Acts
(1673) Act passed by the British Parliament that required holders of civil and military offices to profess the established religion and to receive Holy Communion according to the rites of the Church of England.
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1685-1688). The last Stuart king to rule both England and Scotland, he was overthrown by his son-in-law William of Orange
William of Orange
King of England and Scotland and Ireland, he married the daughter of James II and was invited by opponents of James II to invade England; when James fled, William III and Mary II were declared joint monarchs (1650-1702)
The Glorious Revolution
The English Parliament drove out an absolute monarch and replaced him with two constitutional monarch's William and Mary
belief earth is the center of the universe
Aristotle had distinguished sharply between the WHAT and the earth. The celestial spheres consisted of a perfect, incorruptible "quintesence" or fifth essence. The earth was composed of four imperfect, changeable elements. The "light" elements (air and fire) naturally moved upward, while the "heavy" elements (water and earth) naturally moved downward.
17th century French philosopher; wrote Discourse on Method; 1st principle "i think therefore i am"; believed mind and matter were completly seperate; known as father of modern rationalism
English philosopher who developed scientific method; believed that instead of relying on the ideas of ancient authorites, scientists should use inductive reasoning to learn about nature; wanted science to benefit industry, agriculture, and trade
Proposed the heliocentric theory that put the sun in the center of the earth with the planets traveling around the sun.
Influenced by Copernicus; Built observatory and collected data on the locations of stars and planets for over 20 years; His limited knowledge of mathematics prevented him from making much sense out of the data.
discovered that the paths of the planets around the sun are elliptical rather that circular
Italian astronomer, mathematician, and physicist. His telescopes proved the sun is the center of the solar system and that the planets/moon move. He was persecuted for supporting Copernicus' ideas.
Sir Issac Newton
Law of gravity, invented Calculus. 2) If scientists could find the natural law of the universe, then philosophers could find the natural law of the society.
Newton set forth the laws of motion, including the famous law of gravitation, which ex¬plained falling bodies on earth and planetary motion.
French scientist who wanted to keep science and religion together. He had a mystical experience and from then on sought to convert rationalists to Christian religion, which he was determined to show did not conflict with reason (which was done in his book Pensées)
reliance on faith rather than reason in pursuit of religious truth
a philosophical doctrine holding that all events are predetermined in advance for all time and human beings are powerless to change them
French king who succeeded Henry IV when he was nine years old; his reign was dominated by the influence by his mother and regent Marie de Medici, Cardinal Richelieu, and wealthy nobles.
the chief minister of Louis XII who ran the French government from 1624 to 1642. he was a political genius who wanted to make the king supreme in France and France supreme in Europe. he set out to destroy the power of the nobles and the Huguenots who were protected by the Edict of Nantes. He strengthened France economically and appointed intendants.
Anne of Austria
the mother of King Louis XIV, who ruled as his regent, along with Cardinal Mazarin.
became dominant power in the government. Continued the centralizing powers of Richelieu, but in 1648 his unpopular attempts to increase roal revenues and expand the state bureaucracy resulted in a widesread rebellion known as the Fronde.
(1648 - 53) Series of civil wars in France during the minority of Louis XIV. The Fronde (named for the "sling" of a children's game played in the streets of Paris in defiance of authorities) was in part an attempt to check the growing power of royal government, but its failure paved the way for the absolutism of Louis XIV's reign.
The French King who built the palace at versailles, The longest standing King of France "Sun King",, One of the most powerful monarchs of Europe, ruling 72 years. He was famous for his quote,"I am the state." Moved capital to Versailles which became a symbol of power.
the idea that monarchs are God's representatives on earth and are therefore answerable only to God.
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
a finance minister under Louis XIV that applied mercantilism to France to help increase revenue
Palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility.
Edict of Nantes
1598, decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants
Frederick William the Great Elector
the man who starting absolutism in Prussia by uniting the three provinces of Prussia under one ruler
a former kingdom in north-central Europe including present-day northern Germany and northern Poland
Members of the Prussian landed aristocracy, a class formerly associated with political reaction and militarism.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
A document, issued by the National Assembly in July 1790, that broke ties with the Catholic Church and established a national church system in France with a process for the election of regional bishops. The document angered the pope and church officials and turned many French Catholics against the revolutionaries.
Radical republican group in French Rev; organized military force that saved republic, but leader Maximilien Robespierre ruled by dictatorship and set Reign of Terror into action
the period, from mid-1793 to mid-1794, when Maximilien Robespierre France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed
in the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners, and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end of food shortages. did not wear tight fitting breeches of aristocratic men.
The Committee for Public Safety
established in 1793 as guidance for the government. Consisted of 12 men led by Robespierre, established a totalitarian estate.
Part of Jacobin club. He was merciless and during his reign of power it was called the reign of terror. He also formed a committe of public safety which decided who should be executed. He conveniently executed his prime political enemies first.
the act of killing a king
The violent backlash in France against the rule of Robspierre that began with his arrest and execution in July 1794, or 9 Thermidor in the French revolutionary calendar. Most of the instruments of Terror were dismantled, Jacobins were purged from public office, and Jacobin supporters were harassed or even murdered.
1785-1799. Five man group. Passed a new constitution in 1795 that was much more conservative. Corrupt and did not help the poor, but remained in power because of military strength. By 1797 it was a dictatorship.
This political revolution began with the Declaration of Independence in 1776 where American colonists sought to balance the power between government and the people and protect the rights of citizens in a democracy.
Three Estates: the first estate was made up of clergy of Roman Catholic Church. They scorned Enlightenment ideas. The Second Estate was made up of rich nobles. They held the highest offices in government. They disagreed about Enlightenment ideas. The Third Estate included bourgeoisie, urban lower class, and peasant farmers. They had no power to influence government. They embraced Enlightenment ideas
- King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution. (p. 585)
Popular revolt, Instability, Terror, Restoration
The tennis court oath
Due to being outnumbered the Third Estate took a daring step and claimed to represent France calling themselves the National Assembly. When they later convened the meeting hall was locked so they met on a nearby tennis court and swore to never seperate and meet wherever the circumstances required.
The National Assembly
A group of Third Estate delegates that broke ties with the Estates General. Drafted a constitution for France at the Oath of the Tennis court. Marked the first stage of the revolution.
Storming of the Bastille
Paris-July 14, 1789~the medieval fortress and prison known as the Bastille contained only seven prisoners, its fall was the flashpoint of the French Revolution and it subsequently become an icon of the French Republic
The great fear
a vast panic that spread quickly through France in 1789; peasant rebellions bacame part of the Great Fear; citizens, fearing invasion by foreign troops that would support the French monarchy, formed militias
the belief that rulers should be chosen for their superior abilities and not because of their wealth or birth
The Declaration of rights of man and citizen
Document modeled after American Declaration of Independence; said all men were born and remain free and equal in rights; gave natural rights to liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression
general; Emperor of France; he seized power in a coup d'état in 1799; he led French armies in conquering much of Europe, placing his relatives in positions of power. Defeated at the Battle of Waterloo, he was exiled on the island of Elba
dominated by Danton. attempted to organize a defense against Prussia. throws people in jail
Concordat with the Papacy
Napoleon's agreement with the pope reestablishing relations between France and the Church
Napoleon added to the Concordat between France and the papacy, said that papal decrees and orders were subject to government approval, clergy had to read government announcements from pulpit, catechism was very secular
Part of make-believe parliamentary institution set up under Consulate. Through universal male suffrage a list of notables was elected and from this list government could choose ministers. But in reality, power was with the First Consul - Napoleon.
The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.
This was the civil code put out by Napoleon that granted equality of all male citizens before the law and granted absolute security of wealth and private property. Napoleon also secured this by creating the Bank of France which loyally served the interests of both the state and the financial oligarchy
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain's economy.
(October 1805) Britain's Admiral Nelson destroyed the combined French and Spanish navies. Nelson was killed but invasion of Britain now became impossible.
Admiral Horatio Nelson
defeated the French fleet preventing Napoleons planned invasion of Britain
Battle fought between the French army under Napoleon and the Prussian army during the french revolution. this was another huge french victory which caused Prussia to fall under the rule of Napoleon.
"War is never an isolated act...war does not consist of a single instantaneous blow...the effects of war are never absolute."
Claimed that German culture was distinctly different from French culture, and that German culture was superior. Superiority. Said Germans should assume their rightful place as the leaders of Europe.
a movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that celebrated nature rather than civilization
(1814-1824) Restored Bourbon throne after the Revolution. He accepted Napoleon's Civil Code (principle of equality before the law), honored the property rights of those who had purchased confiscated land and establish a bicameral (two-house) legislature consisting of the Chamber of Peers (chosen by king) and the Chamber of Deputies (chosen by an electorate).
The site of Napoleon's defeat by British and Prussian armies in 1815, which ended his last bid for power
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon
The extreme phase in the spirit of reaction was reached in Germany when the laws given below were enacted by the Diet. Using the murder of Kotzebue as an excuse, Metternich called a conference of the larger states of the Confederation at Carlsbad (Bohemia) in August, 1819. Here a series of resolutions were drawn up, with the aim of checking the free expression of opinions hostile to existing institutions and of discovering and bringing to justice conspirators, who were supposed to exist in dangerous numbers. These Carlsbad Resolutions were laid before the Diet, which, under Austria's influence, reluctantly ratified them.
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