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Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration

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NADPH
energy transporter used in Calvin Cycle
NADP+
holds two high energy electrons along with a hydrogen ion, which converts into NADPH
ATP
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work
ADP
Similar structure to ATP but has only 2 phosphate groups. Partly charged
stroma
The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
thylakoid
saclike photosynthetic membrane found in chloroplasts
granum
stacks of thylakoids
Calvin Cycle
reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugars
light reaction
The steps in photosynthesis that occur on the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast and that convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH, evolving oxygen in the process.
glucose
Sugar, Manufactured during photosynthesis, Main source of energy for plants and animals, Metabolized during cellular respiration
mitochondria
cellular organelles where cellular respiration occurs
chloroplast
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
pigment
a colored chemical compound that absorbs light, producing color
fermentation
A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid.
Glycolysis
first step in releasing the energy of glucose, in which a molecule of glucose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid
lactic acid
waste product produced by Fermentation; causes muscles to be sore
alchohol
When yeast goes through anaerobic resparation, what comes out as a biproduct?
aerobic
process that requires oxygen
anaerobic
process that does not require oxygen.
stoma
a minute epidermal pore in a leaf or stem through which gases and water vapor can pass
dynamic equilibrium
A condition that is stable within certain levels
respiration
the metabolic processes whereby certain organisms obtain energy from organic moelcules
glucose
C6H12O6
reactant
a chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemical reaction
product
a chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction
independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
homeostasis
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
dependent variable
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
photosynthesis
6CO2 + 6H2O + light --> C6H12O6 + 6O2
cellular respiration
C6H12O6 + O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy