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in Spanish colonial society, colonists who were born in Spain


in Spanish colonial society, a colonist who was born in Latin America to Spanish parents


persons of mixed European and Indian ancestry


persons of mixed European and African ancestry

Toussaint L'Ouverture

he led the 100,000 revolting enslaved Africans in the Haitian Revolution
- Formerly enslaved, he was unfamiliar with military and diplomatic matters
- He took control of the entire island and freed all the enslaved Africans

Jean-Jacques Dessalines

Toussaint's lieutenant
- Took up the fight for freedom
- Declared the colony an independent country
o First black colony to free itself from European control
- Called Haiti "mountainous land"

King Ferdinand VII

Napoleon removed him from emperor, and made his brother Joseph king of Spain

Joseph Bonaparte

Removing Spain's King Ferdinand VII, Napoleon made his brother king of Spain. Rebellion broke out

Simon Bolivar

a wealthy Venezuelan creole
- Volunteer army suffered numerous defeats
- Had to go into exile twice
- Led 2,000 soldiers through the Andes into Columbia
o Won decisive victory
- By 1821, he had won Venezuela's independence
- Met Jose de San Martin in Ecuador
o Decide the future of the Latin American revolution movement

Jose de San Martin

a Venezuelan
- Argentina had declared independence in 1816
- Led army on a grueling march across the Andes to Chile
o Joined forces led by Bernado O'Higgins
- In 1821, he planned to drive the remaining Spanish forces out of Lima
- Left his army for Boliver to command
o Defeat the Spanish at the Battle of Ayacucho on December 9, 1824

Bernardo O'Higgins

He and his forces joined San Martin and was the son of a former viceroy of Peru
- With his help, San Martin finally freed Chile

Battle of Ayacucho

Bolivar's army went on to defeat the Spanish at this battle
- It was the last major battle of the war for independence and the Spanish colonies in Latin America won their independence

Miguel Hidalgo

a priest in the small village of Dolores, took the first step toward independence
- Well-educated and believe in Enlightenment ideas
- Peasants gathered in the church, and he issued a call for rebellion against the Spanish
o Grito de Dolores
- Followers began a march toward Mexico City
o 80,000 men
o Alarmed the Spanish army and creoles, who feared the loss of their property, control of the land, and their lives
o Defeated Hidalgo in 1811

grito de Dolores

the call Hidalgo made in a church from rebellion against the Spanish

Jose Maria Morelos

army rallied around him
- Led revolutionary for 4 years
- In 1815, a creole officer, Agustin de Iturbide defeated him

Agustin de Iturbide

this creole officer defeated Jose Maria Morelos' revolution


in the first half of the 19th century, a European-usually a wealthy landowner or noble- who wanted to preserve the traditional monarchies of Europe


in the first half of the 19th century, a European-usaully a middle-class business leader or merchant-who wanted to give more political power to elected parliaments


in the first half of the 19th century, a European who favored drastic change to extend democracy to all people


the belief that people should be loyal mainly to their nation- that is, to the people with whom they share a culture and history-rather than to a king or empire


an independent geopolitical unit of people having a common culture and identity

The Balkans

the region of southeastern Europe now occupied by Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, the European part of Turkey, and the former republics of Yugoslavia

Battle of Navarino

Naval engagement in the War of Greek Independence against Turkey. A fleet of British, French, and Russian ships was sent to aid Greece by intercepting supplies for the Egyptian-Turkish fleet anchored in the Navarino Bay in the Peloponnese. Shortly after it entered the harbour, the superior guns of the European fleet sent three-fourths of the larger Egyptian-Turkish fleet to the bottom and forced others aground. The defeat marked the last significant battle between wooden sailing ships and led to Turkey's evacuation from Greece.

Prince Klemens von Metternich

foreign minister of Austria
- Distrusted the democratic ideals of the French Revolution
- 3 goals at the Congress of Vienna
o Prevent future French aggression
o Balance of power
o Restore Europe's royal families
- Sent Austrian troops to restore order in Italy when riots broke out

King Charles X

tried to stage a return to absolute monarchy
- The attempt sparked riots that forced him to flee to Great Britain


replaced King Charles X
- Supported liberal reforms in France
- After a reign of almost 18 years, he fell from popular favor


won the election and became Napoleon III
- Some weary of instability
- Some very accepting
- He built railroads, encouraged industrialization, and promoted an ambitious program of public works
o Unemployment decreased

Alexander II

freed the serfs in 1861
- Peasant communities received half of the land
- Nobles kept the other half
- Government paid nobles for their land
o Serfs had to pay the government
Legally free but debt attached them to the land
- Terrorists assassinated him when trying to make political and social reforms


the process of forcing Russian culture on all ethnic groups in the Russian Empire

King Victor Emmanuel II

Sardinia's king that named Count Camillo di Cavour as his prime minister

Camillo di Cavour

Victor Emmanuel II appointed him as his prime minister
- Worked very hard to expand Piedmont-Sardinia's power
- Realized Austria was the greatest roadblock to annexing northern Italy

Guiseppe Garibaldi

led an army and captured Sicily
- Him and his army also wore bright red shirts and became known as the Red Shirts
- He agreed to unite the southern areas he had conquered with the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia
o Met in Naples and let Victor Emmanuel II rule

the Red Shirts

Giuseppe Garibali's army because they wore bright red shirts in battle


supported Wilhelm I
- Strongly conservative members of Prussia's wealthy landowning class

Otto von BIsmarck

Wilhelm I elected him prime minister


("the politics of reality") - the practice of tough power politics without room for idealism

King Wilhelm I

crowned Kaiser at the palace of Versailles on January 18, 1871


a German emperor (from the Roman title Caesar)


an early-19th-century movement in art and thought, which focused on emotion and nature rather than reason and society

Victor Hugo

led the French romantics
- Reflect the romantic fascination with history and the individual
- Les Miserables and The Hunchback of Notre Dame
o Struggles of individuals against a hostile society

Mary Shelly

wife of Percy Bysshe Shelly wrote Frankenstein
- Monster created from the body parts of dead human beings


a 19th century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be


first photographers named after Louis Daguerre

William Talbot

invented a light-sensitive paper to produce photographic negatives
- Process also allowed photos to be reproduced in books and newspapers

Charles Dickens

(Little Dorrit) - created unforgettable characters and scenes of the poor
- Book describe the life of a working-class person as sheer monotony set in a gloomy neighborhood


a movement in 19th century painting, in which artists reacted against realism by seeking to convey their impressions of subjects or moments in time

Claude Monet

leaders of impressionism

Edgar Degas

leader of impressionism

Pierre-Auguste Renoir

leader of impressionism

Ludwig van Beethoven

one of the composers leading the way into the Romantic period
- Evolved from the classical music of the Enlightenment into romantic compositions
- His Ninth Symphony soars, celebrating freedom, dignity, and the triumph of the human spirit

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