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Stewart ch. 24

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Peninsulares
in Spanish colonial society, colonists who were born in Spain
Creoles
in Spanish colonial society, a colonist who was born in Latin America to Spanish parents
Mestizos
persons of mixed European and Indian ancestry
Mulatto
persons of mixed European and African ancestry
Toussaint L'Ouverture
he led the 100,000 revolting enslaved Africans in the Haitian Revolution
- Formerly enslaved, he was unfamiliar with military and diplomatic matters
- He took control of the entire island and freed all the enslaved Africans
Jean-Jacques Dessalines
Toussaint's lieutenant
- Took up the fight for freedom
- Declared the colony an independent country
o First black colony to free itself from European control
- Called Haiti "mountainous land"
King Ferdinand VII
Napoleon removed him from emperor, and made his brother Joseph king of Spain
Joseph Bonaparte
Removing Spain's King Ferdinand VII, Napoleon made his brother king of Spain. Rebellion broke out
Simon Bolivar
a wealthy Venezuelan creole
- Volunteer army suffered numerous defeats
- Had to go into exile twice
- Led 2,000 soldiers through the Andes into Columbia
o Won decisive victory
- By 1821, he had won Venezuela's independence
- Met Jose de San Martin in Ecuador
o Decide the future of the Latin American revolution movement
Jose de San Martin
a Venezuelan
- Argentina had declared independence in 1816
- Led army on a grueling march across the Andes to Chile
o Joined forces led by Bernado O'Higgins
- In 1821, he planned to drive the remaining Spanish forces out of Lima
- Left his army for Boliver to command
o Defeat the Spanish at the Battle of Ayacucho on December 9, 1824
Bernardo O'Higgins
He and his forces joined San Martin and was the son of a former viceroy of Peru
- With his help, San Martin finally freed Chile
Battle of Ayacucho
Bolivar's army went on to defeat the Spanish at this battle
- It was the last major battle of the war for independence and the Spanish colonies in Latin America won their independence
Miguel Hidalgo
a priest in the small village of Dolores, took the first step toward independence
- Well-educated and believe in Enlightenment ideas
- Peasants gathered in the church, and he issued a call for rebellion against the Spanish
o Grito de Dolores
- Followers began a march toward Mexico City
o 80,000 men
o Alarmed the Spanish army and creoles, who feared the loss of their property, control of the land, and their lives
o Defeated Hidalgo in 1811
grito de Dolores
the call Hidalgo made in a church from rebellion against the Spanish
Jose Maria Morelos
army rallied around him
- Led revolutionary for 4 years
- In 1815, a creole officer, Agustin de Iturbide defeated him
Agustin de Iturbide
this creole officer defeated Jose Maria Morelos' revolution
Conservative
in the first half of the 19th century, a European-usually a wealthy landowner or noble- who wanted to preserve the traditional monarchies of Europe
Liberal
in the first half of the 19th century, a European-usaully a middle-class business leader or merchant-who wanted to give more political power to elected parliaments
Radical
in the first half of the 19th century, a European who favored drastic change to extend democracy to all people
Nationalism
the belief that people should be loyal mainly to their nation- that is, to the people with whom they share a culture and history-rather than to a king or empire
nation-state
an independent geopolitical unit of people having a common culture and identity
The Balkans
the region of southeastern Europe now occupied by Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, the European part of Turkey, and the former republics of Yugoslavia
Battle of Navarino
Naval engagement in the War of Greek Independence against Turkey. A fleet of British, French, and Russian ships was sent to aid Greece by intercepting supplies for the Egyptian-Turkish fleet anchored in the Navarino Bay in the Peloponnese. Shortly after it entered the harbour, the superior guns of the European fleet sent three-fourths of the larger Egyptian-Turkish fleet to the bottom and forced others aground. The defeat marked the last significant battle between wooden sailing ships and led to Turkey's evacuation from Greece.
Prince Klemens von Metternich
foreign minister of Austria
- Distrusted the democratic ideals of the French Revolution
- 3 goals at the Congress of Vienna
o Prevent future French aggression
o Balance of power
o Restore Europe's royal families
- Sent Austrian troops to restore order in Italy when riots broke out
King Charles X
tried to stage a return to absolute monarchy
- The attempt sparked riots that forced him to flee to Great Britain
Louis-Philippe
replaced King Charles X
- Supported liberal reforms in France
- After a reign of almost 18 years, he fell from popular favor
Louis-Napoleon
won the election and became Napoleon III
- Some weary of instability
- Some very accepting
- He built railroads, encouraged industrialization, and promoted an ambitious program of public works
o Unemployment decreased
Alexander II
freed the serfs in 1861
- Peasant communities received half of the land
- Nobles kept the other half
- Government paid nobles for their land
o Serfs had to pay the government
Legally free but debt attached them to the land
- Terrorists assassinated him when trying to make political and social reforms
Russification
the process of forcing Russian culture on all ethnic groups in the Russian Empire
King Victor Emmanuel II
Sardinia's king that named Count Camillo di Cavour as his prime minister
Camillo di Cavour
Victor Emmanuel II appointed him as his prime minister
- Worked very hard to expand Piedmont-Sardinia's power
- Realized Austria was the greatest roadblock to annexing northern Italy
Guiseppe Garibaldi
led an army and captured Sicily
- Him and his army also wore bright red shirts and became known as the Red Shirts
- He agreed to unite the southern areas he had conquered with the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia
o Met in Naples and let Victor Emmanuel II rule
the Red Shirts
Giuseppe Garibali's army because they wore bright red shirts in battle
Junkers
supported Wilhelm I
- Strongly conservative members of Prussia's wealthy landowning class
Otto von BIsmarck
Wilhelm I elected him prime minister
realpolitik
("the politics of reality") - the practice of tough power politics without room for idealism
King Wilhelm I
crowned Kaiser at the palace of Versailles on January 18, 1871
kaiser
a German emperor (from the Roman title Caesar)
romanticism
an early-19th-century movement in art and thought, which focused on emotion and nature rather than reason and society
Victor Hugo
led the French romantics
- Reflect the romantic fascination with history and the individual
- Les Miserables and The Hunchback of Notre Dame
o Struggles of individuals against a hostile society
Mary Shelly
wife of Percy Bysshe Shelly wrote Frankenstein
- Monster created from the body parts of dead human beings
Realism
a 19th century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be
Daguerreotypes
first photographers named after Louis Daguerre
William Talbot
invented a light-sensitive paper to produce photographic negatives
- Process also allowed photos to be reproduced in books and newspapers
Charles Dickens
(Little Dorrit) - created unforgettable characters and scenes of the poor
- Book describe the life of a working-class person as sheer monotony set in a gloomy neighborhood
Impressionism
a movement in 19th century painting, in which artists reacted against realism by seeking to convey their impressions of subjects or moments in time
Claude Monet
leaders of impressionism
Edgar Degas
leader of impressionism
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
leader of impressionism
Ludwig van Beethoven
one of the composers leading the way into the Romantic period
- Evolved from the classical music of the Enlightenment into romantic compositions
- His Ninth Symphony soars, celebrating freedom, dignity, and the triumph of the human spirit