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Major theaters of warfare- highlights:
Russian forces suffered defeats by Germany, Russia experienced two revolutions and finally withdrew in 1918 accepting the harsh terms of the treaty of Brest-Litousk
Major theaters of warfare- highlights:
1915 Battle of Gallipoh: Britan fails to take Constantinople and Dardenelles from Ottoman Turks, incites Arabs to revolt against Ottoman Turks
Central Powers 1917
Overrun most of Balkans except Greece, unsuccessful in Italy, could use waterways to their advantage
By 1914 German armies overran Belgium and northern France until they were stoppped at the Battle of Marne
US declares war on Germany because
a) unrestricted submarine warfare
b) propaganda: alligned with British, stories slated against Central Powers, anti-German convinced US to support allies
c) German hostility in the Americas: Zimmerman Note
d)loans made to the Allies, pressure from banks
e) make the world safe for democracy
Social impacts at home
Women took on more jobs, gender attitudes changed, many countries gave women the right to vote, lessened gap between social classes
Impacts economically at home
Unions cooperated with gov't, not to ask for wage increases, planned economy, everything geared towards war
Auxiliary Law in Germany
all males 17-60 had to work a job critical to the war effort, Fatherland party becomes more popular in Germany
Weapons used in WWI
machine gun, rifle, chlorine gas, mustard gas, blimps, tanks, planes, torpedoes, basked wire, flame thrower, grenades
Russian Revolution: Political causes
Russian land owned by companies, peasants had no land. Nicolas II doesn't share power with the Duma, alienates the Duma
Nicolas II weak leader
Nicolas II befriends the Duma to prevent loss of power, but eventually dismisses the Duma, then Nicolas II goes to fight in the army, upsetting most of the Russian population
Economic causes of Russian rev.
Peasants want land from the gov't, soldiers had no weapons, no training. Workers wanted better working conditions and higher wages
Social causes of Russian rev
Nationalities, 40% of Russians were not ethnic Russians, wanted an end to russification (conversion to Russian culture)
Progressive Bloc: Sept 1995
attempt to restructure the gov't, responsible to the Duman, not the tsar.
Tsarina Alexandra put in power
fan of Rasputin (RA RA RASPUTIN) he would influence her power, gave advice, love affair
Russia under Alexander Kerensky
Refused to give land to the peasants, didn't pull out of the war, shared power with Petrograd Soviet of Workers and Soldiers. Restores civil liberties, frees prisonners, Army Order No. 1
Why did provisional gov't under Kerensky fail?
-too moderate, people wanted radical change
-had to share power with Petrograd Soviets, who wanted further, more radical changes
-Loses support of the army under General Kornilov
-the return of Vladimir Lenin
-end of dynasty
the return of Lenin: his beliefs regarding socialism;
-Only violent revolution could destroy capitalism
-Revolution not based on history, based on leadership
-Revolution possible in not only industrialized society, but agrarian
-Small elite group to set everything up, after planning is done, group disbands
-Goal is for everyone to be equal
"all power to the soviets" "all land to the peasants" "end the war now" "bread, land, and peace"
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