Chapter 26: Feb 6-10

i spelled stuff wrong. my apologies.
Major theaters of warfare- highlights:
Eastern/Central Front
Russian forces suffered defeats by Germany, Russia experienced two revolutions and finally withdrew in 1918 accepting the harsh terms of the treaty of Brest-Litousk
Major theaters of warfare- highlights:
Southern Fron
1915 Battle of Gallipoh: Britan fails to take Constantinople and Dardenelles from Ottoman Turks, incites Arabs to revolt against Ottoman Turks
Central Powers 1917
Overrun most of Balkans except Greece, unsuccessful in Italy, could use waterways to their advantage
Western Front
By 1914 German armies overran Belgium and northern France until they were stoppped at the Battle of Marne
1916 Germans
attempted to stop the Allies but were defeated at Verdun and Somme
United States enters the war
Unifies with French troops under Fr. Marshal Foch
November 11, 1918
Germands under command of General von Hindenberg and Ludendorff sue for peace
US declares war on Germany because
a) unrestricted submarine warfare
b) propaganda: alligned with British, stories slated against Central Powers, anti-German convinced US to support allies
c) German hostility in the Americas: Zimmerman Note
d)loans made to the Allies, pressure from banks
e) make the world safe for democracy
War on the home front
Most people viewed the war enthusiastically, but came home disillusioned
Social impacts at home
Women took on more jobs, gender attitudes changed, many countries gave women the right to vote, lessened gap between social classes
Impacts economically at home
Unions cooperated with gov't, not to ask for wage increases, planned economy, everything geared towards war
Political tensions: France
George Clemenceau, people had little civil liberties
Auxiliary Law in Germany
all males 17-60 had to work a job critical to the war effort, Fatherland party becomes more popular in Germany
Austrian politics
France Joseph dies, transition, Austrians saw opportunity to declare independence
Great Britain politics
Easter uprising= Irish fighting independence
Weapons used in WWI
machine gun, rifle, chlorine gas, mustard gas, blimps, tanks, planes, torpedoes, basked wire, flame thrower, grenades
Russian Revolution: Political causes
Russian land owned by companies, peasants had no land. Nicolas II doesn't share power with the Duma, alienates the Duma
Nicolas II weak leader
Nicolas II befriends the Duma to prevent loss of power, but eventually dismisses the Duma, then Nicolas II goes to fight in the army, upsetting most of the Russian population
Economic causes of Russian rev.
Peasants want land from the gov't, soldiers had no weapons, no training. Workers wanted better working conditions and higher wages
Social causes of Russian rev
Nationalities, 40% of Russians were not ethnic Russians, wanted an end to russification (conversion to Russian culture)
Progressive Bloc: Sept 1995
attempt to restructure the gov't, responsible to the Duman, not the tsar.
Tsarina Alexandra put in power
fan of Rasputin (RA RA RASPUTIN) he would influence her power, gave advice, love affair
Provisional Gov't: March-Nov 1917
Lavr Kornilov, commander in chief, Alexander Kerensky
Russia under Alexander Kerensky
Refused to give land to the peasants, didn't pull out of the war, shared power with Petrograd Soviet of Workers and Soldiers. Restores civil liberties, frees prisonners, Army Order No. 1
Why did provisional gov't under Kerensky fail?
-too moderate, people wanted radical change
-had to share power with Petrograd Soviets, who wanted further, more radical changes
-Loses support of the army under General Kornilov
-the return of Vladimir Lenin
-end of dynasty
the return of Lenin: his beliefs regarding socialism;
-Only violent revolution could destroy capitalism
-Revolution not based on history, based on leadership
-Revolution possible in not only industrialized society, but agrarian
Lenin's plan
-Small elite group to set everything up, after planning is done, group disbands
-Goal is for everyone to be equal
Lenin's slogans
"all power to the soviets" "all land to the peasants" "end the war now" "bread, land, and peace"
Easy for Bolsheviks to come to power
support of so many types of people, again more power, saying what people wanted to hear, Trostsky and Lenin and strong leadership, very convincing