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use of chem substances to treat disease; antibiotics; any med

chemotherapeutic agent

any chem sub used in medicine

antimicrobial agent

groups of chemotherapeutic agents used to treat disease caused by microbes


chem produced by microbes that kill or inhibit other organisms

synthetic drugs

drug synthesized in lab

semi-synthetic drugs

drug made by microbe then we alter in lab (penicillin)

selective toxicity

harm from microbe happens w/o significant host damage

spectrum of activity

range of microbes that are treated with antimicrobial; broad or narrow

broad spectrum

kills Gram + and Gram -

narrow spectrum

very specific, you know what disease you are treating

modes of action

what part of cell antimicrobial attacking; inhibition of cell wall synthesis, disruption of cell membrane function, inhibition of protein synthesis, inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis, action as antimetabolites

inhibition of cell wall synthesis

agents allow membrane of the affected microbe to rupture and release cell contents

disrpution of cell membrane function

dissolves membrane or interferes w/ movement of substances in/out of cell

inhibition of protein synthesis

agent prevents growth by disrupting the ribosomes

inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis

agent interferes with DNA replication, may disrupt info on DNA

action as antimetabolites

create competiton w/ enzymes or might be incorporated in the DNA

side effects of antimicrobials

toxicity- some exert toxic effects on patients; allergy- reaction, body reacts to agents; disruption of normal microflora- kills natural body microflora, result in super infection allows bad microbes to enter

resistance of microorganisms

no longer suseptable to grow

how resistance is acquired

over usage of drug or not take whole dose

mechanisms of resistance

alteration of targets- affect ribosomes; alteration of membrane permiability- antibiotic can't go through cell; development of enzymes- may inactivate antibiotic; alteration of enzymes; alteration of metabolic reaction

first-line, second line, third line drugs

drugs used everytime; no longer effective; move to second line, etc.; 1st-sulfonamides, 2 penicillin, 3 spectinomycin


resistant to 2 or more similar antimicrobial agents

limiting drug resistance

finish prescription; take 2 antibiotics at same time; take when necessary

disk diffusion method

disk w/ antimicrobial tested on agar plate

dilution method

serial dilution; 1 ml to 9 ml= 1:10; how little of agent needed to kill bacteria

serum killing power

obtain blood sample while patient on antibiotics; add bacterial to blood sample to see what happens

automated methods

using machinery to determine if antimicrobial will kill microbe; incubation chamber; recorded by computer

solubility in body fluids

dissolve in body fluid to transport throughout body

selective toxicity

agent must be more toxic to mo than to host

toxicity not easily altered

maintain standard toxicity; no change in interaction w/ foods


not elicit allergic reaction


get up to level in body and stay at that level; no degrade


few mo resistant to agent

long shelf life

keep therapeutic properties overtime

reasonable cost

affortable to patient

attributes of an ideal antimicrobial agent

solubility in body fluids, selective toxicity, toxicity not easily altered, nonallergenic, stability, resistance, long shelf life, reasonable cost

inhibitors of cell wall synthesis

penicillin, cephalosporins, other agents that act on cell walls


made from mold; rapidly absorbed by blood, reaches max concentration rapidly; TREAT: Gram + rods, strep, pneumonia


keflex; TREAT: Gram + rods

other agents that act on cell wall

carbapenems- new antibiotic, can be toxic; bacitracin- TREAT: Gram + rods

disrupters of cell membranes

polymyxins- can cause kidney damage, respiratory arrest; treat: skin infections, topical agents; TREAT: Gram -

inhibitors of protein synthesis

aminglycosides; tetracyclines; chloramphenicol


strepomyosin- broad spectrum antibiotic; SIDE EFFECTS: damage kidney, inner ear infections; permanent ringing of ears


not for pregnant women, cause birth defects; not for children <5, affect teeth; TREAT: acne, chlamydia, fungal infections


banned in US 1997; cause bone marrow damage, blindness; use in lanbs for gene marking and cloning


affect protein synthesis; erythromycin, zithromax, bioxin; TREAT: strep, chlamydia, legine aires disease; least toxic of antibiotics


affects protein synthesis; semi-synthetic drug; not any better than others; organisms form resistance

inhibitors of nucleic acid synthesis

rifampin- blocks RNA synthesis; TREAT: tuberculosis; quinolones- synthetic, new, ciproflaxin; TREAT: anthrax, Gram+/Gram-


sulfa group; cause kidney damage, skin rashes; TREAT: meningitis, UTI; toxic to bone marrow


give dietary supplements; mess w/ absorption in digestive tract; TREAT: tuberculosis


kills certain strains of mycobacteria; new drug


synthesized; TREAT: urinary infections

antifungal agents

imidazoles and triazoles; polyenes; griseofulvin

imidazoles and triazoles

topical creams; skin infections, candida, thrush, under nails, those cause yeast infections


amphotericin B- used for years for fungi infections; side effects- fever, chill, kidney; not used as much; nystatin- oral; TREAT: yeast infection


derived for superficial fungal infections; not absorbed well in intestinal tract; orally then sweat out; few side effects; for hair, nail skin

other antifungal agents

synthetic drugs- tinactin, lamisil; few side effects- drying of area

antiviral agents

pruine and pyrimidine analogs, amantadine, treatment of AIDS, interferons and immunoenhancers

purine and pyrimidine analogs

acyclovir and zovarax- oral/topical, reduce pain; TREAT: herpes virus


prevents influenza A; use fews days before to week after exposure

treatment of AIDS

treatments; NO CURE

interferons and immunoenhancers

we produce our own proteins; WARTS

antiprotozoan agents

quinine- from bark of tree, TREAT: malaria; chloroquine and primaquine- messes w/ protein synthesis, TREAT: malaria; metroidazole- breakage to DNA, cause black tongue, TREAT: trichomonas (STD)-gym shower, giardia- drink "clean" water that is not clean

antihelminthic agent

pesticides; niciosamide, mebendazole


inactivates products made by worm itself; TREAT: tapeworm infections


not for pregnant women- damage to fetus; TREAT: whip/pin/hook worms

other antihelminthic agents

roundworms, ascaris

special problems w/ drug resistant hospital infections

they mutate

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