Create an account
modes of action
what part of cell antimicrobial attacking; inhibition of cell wall synthesis, disruption of cell membrane function, inhibition of protein synthesis, inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis, action as antimetabolites
inhibition of cell wall synthesis
agents allow membrane of the affected microbe to rupture and release cell contents
disrpution of cell membrane function
dissolves membrane or interferes w/ movement of substances in/out of cell
side effects of antimicrobials
toxicity- some exert toxic effects on patients; allergy- reaction, body reacts to agents; disruption of normal microflora- kills natural body microflora, result in super infection allows bad microbes to enter
mechanisms of resistance
alteration of targets- affect ribosomes; alteration of membrane permiability- antibiotic can't go through cell; development of enzymes- may inactivate antibiotic; alteration of enzymes; alteration of metabolic reaction
first-line, second line, third line drugs
drugs used everytime; no longer effective; move to second line, etc.; 1st-sulfonamides, 2 penicillin, 3 spectinomycin
serum killing power
obtain blood sample while patient on antibiotics; add bacterial to blood sample to see what happens
using machinery to determine if antimicrobial will kill microbe; incubation chamber; recorded by computer
attributes of an ideal antimicrobial agent
solubility in body fluids, selective toxicity, toxicity not easily altered, nonallergenic, stability, resistance, long shelf life, reasonable cost
made from mold; rapidly absorbed by blood, reaches max concentration rapidly; TREAT: Gram + rods, strep, pneumonia
other agents that act on cell wall
carbapenems- new antibiotic, can be toxic; bacitracin- TREAT: Gram + rods
disrupters of cell membranes
polymyxins- can cause kidney damage, respiratory arrest; treat: skin infections, topical agents; TREAT: Gram -
strepomyosin- broad spectrum antibiotic; SIDE EFFECTS: damage kidney, inner ear infections; permanent ringing of ears
not for pregnant women, cause birth defects; not for children <5, affect teeth; TREAT: acne, chlamydia, fungal infections
banned in US 1997; cause bone marrow damage, blindness; use in lanbs for gene marking and cloning
affect protein synthesis; erythromycin, zithromax, bioxin; TREAT: strep, chlamydia, legine aires disease; least toxic of antibiotics
affects protein synthesis; semi-synthetic drug; not any better than others; organisms form resistance
inhibitors of nucleic acid synthesis
rifampin- blocks RNA synthesis; TREAT: tuberculosis; quinolones- synthetic, new, ciproflaxin; TREAT: anthrax, Gram+/Gram-
sulfa group; cause kidney damage, skin rashes; TREAT: meningitis, UTI; toxic to bone marrow
imidazoles and triazoles
topical creams; skin infections, candida, thrush, under nails, those cause yeast infections
amphotericin B- used for years for fungi infections; side effects- fever, chill, kidney; not used as much; nystatin- oral; TREAT: yeast infection
derived for superficial fungal infections; not absorbed well in intestinal tract; orally then sweat out; few side effects; for hair, nail skin
pruine and pyrimidine analogs, amantadine, treatment of AIDS, interferons and immunoenhancers
quinine- from bark of tree, TREAT: malaria; chloroquine and primaquine- messes w/ protein synthesis, TREAT: malaria; metroidazole- breakage to DNA, cause black tongue, TREAT: trichomonas (STD)-gym shower, giardia- drink "clean" water that is not clean
Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.
Having trouble? Click here for help.
We can’t access your microphone!
Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again
Reload the page to try again!Reload
Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom
Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom
It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.
Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.
For more help, see our troubleshooting page.
Your microphone is muted
For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.
Star this term
You can study starred terms together