Chapter 11: Human Development Across the Life Span
The sequence of predictable age-related changes that occur as a person progresses from conception to death; including both behavioral and biological changes
(first 2 weeks) The placenta begins to form between the mother and the zygote
(first 2 weeks) The zygotic cell mass implants itself in the mother's uterine wall
(2 weeks-2 months) Most of the vital organs and bodily systems begin to form
(2 weeks-2 months) Structures such as the heart, spine, and brain begin to emerge as cell division becomes specialized.
(2 weeks-2 months) This stage represents particular vulnerability for the embryo because all of its organs are beginning to form; if anything interferes with these processes the effects can be devastating for the baby
miscarriages and birth defects typically occur in this stage of development.
(2 months- birth) rapid bodily growth occurs as muscles and bones form
(2 months - birth) embryo can now be referred to as a fetus and becomes capable of physical movements.
(2 months-birth) Sex organs begin to develop towards the 3rd month.
age of viability
The age at which a baby can survive in the event of a premature birth (between 22-26 weeks)
fetal alcohol syndrome
Symptoms include a small heard, heart defects, irritability, hyperactivity, and delayed mental and motor development
fetal alcohol syndrome
Children affected are more susceptible to drug abuse, depression, suicide, and criminal behavior later in life
fetal alcohol syndrome
Most common known cause of mental retardation
The progression of muscular coordination required for physical activities.
The head-to-foot direction of motor development (children gain control over the upper part of their body before the lower)
The center-outward direction of motor development (children gain control of their torso before their limbs)
Indicate the median age at which individual's display various behaviors and abilities
Refers to the characteristic mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity of an infant.
For a study, investigators observe one group of participants repeatedly over a period of time.
Investigators compare groups of participants in a study of differing ages at a single point in time (can be completed more quickly and easily)
(caused by predetermined genetics) Shyness, timidity, and wariness of unfamiliar people, objects and events.
(caused by predetermined genetics) Less restrained, approaching the unfamiliar with little anxiety.
(Bowlby) Refers to close emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and their caregivers. (typically the mother)
Emotional distress seen in many infants when they are separated from people with whom they have formed an attachment. (typically peaks around 14-18 months and then begins to decline)
(Ainsworth) child tends to engage in visual checking; signaling to re-establish contact, clinging. The child appears anxious even when its mother is near, but are not particularly relieved when she returns.
(Ainsworth) child tends to maintain proximity while avoiding close contact. These infants seek little contact with their mothers, and are not distressed if she leaves.
(Ainsworth) these children appear confused about whether they should approach or avoid their mothers and are especially insecure.
A developmental period during which characteristic patterns of behavior are exhibited and certain capacities become established.
Psychosocial Personality Development Theory
(Erikson) Each stage presents a different psychosocial crisis involving transitions in social relationships; personality is shaped by how each person reacts to these crises.
Refers to transitions in young peoples' patterns of thinking, including reasoning, remembering, and problem solving.
(Piaget) integrating new and old experiences together. (doesnt change previous experiences)
(Piaget) Involves changing existing mental structures in order to explain new experiences.
Develops when a child recognizes that an object continues to exist even when it can no longer be seen.
(birth-2 years) Infant begins to develop the ability to coordinate their sensory input with their motor actions
the development of object permanence occurs.
(2-7 years) marked by irreversibility, centration, and egocentrism development.
(2-7 years) Children gradually improve their use of mental images, and can begin to solve simple problems.
The awareness that physical quantities remain constant no matter the shape of their container or their appearance.
The tendency to focus on just one feature of a problem, neglecting other important aspects.
The inability to envision reversing an action.
Thinking characterized by a limited ability to share another person's point of view.
concrete operational period
(7-11 years) Mental operations applied to concrete events; mastery of conservation and hierarchical classification.
formal operational period
(11 years +) Mental operations applied to abstract ideas; logical thinking is present.
formal operational period
(11 years +) Children begin to think through their actions and consider possible consequences.
Suggests that an increase in information-processing capacity is one of the attributes that forms the basis of cognitive development.
refers to the maximum number of concepts that in individual can have in their mind at one time. (increases with age)
(Vygotsky) Places emphasis on how cognitive development is influences by social interactions with people who can provide guidance.
(Vygotsky) children's gradual mastery of language plays a crucial role in cognitive development.
(Vygotsky) Saw cognitive development as an apprenticeship- children learned from more experienced members of society.
(Vygotsky) Viewed cognitive development as a universal process that should proceed in relatively the same way across cultures.
zone of proximal development
(ZPD) the gap between what a learner can accomplish alone and what he or she can achieve with guidance from more skilled partners.
Occurs when the assistance provided to a child is adjusted as learning progresses. (Less and less help is provided as a child's competence at a task increases)
Staircase Model of Development
(Case) There are four main stages of cognitive development; each stage masters a specific cognitive operation.
A gradual reduction in the strength of a response when a stimulus event is presented repeatedly.
Occurs if a new stimulus elicits an increase in the strength of a habituated response.
assert that humans are pre-wired to readily understand certain concepts without making assumptions of why this is.
interested in why we are wired as above (natural selection, adaptive benefits)
A limited time span in development which is optimal for certain capacities or abilities to emerge.
implies that a critical period is ideal for a development, but not concrete.
(Kreppner) If a critical period is deprived for less than 6 months, there is little residual impairment on the child.
Theory of Mind
Examines the development of childrens' understanding of the mind and how it works, and how children conceive of another person's thoughts, beliefs, feelings etc.
Theory of Mind
Seeks to understand the nature of the processes that account for early development.
involves the ability to discern between right and wrong and to behave accordingly.
Stage Theory of Moral Development
(Kohlberg) focuses more on the process of moral reasoning rather than actually acting according to this reasoning.
subjects are capable of reproduction and are therefore physiologically mature, yet have not achieved emotional and economic independence from their parents which is a common milestone to adulthood.
reflects the body's fat cell storage, may be behind adolescent growth spurts.
Describes the two year span preceding puberty, during which the changes leading to physical and sexual maturity take place. (secondary sex characteristics develop)
secondary sex characteristics
children begin to develop the physical features of their respective sex. These features are not essential for reproduction.
Stage during which sexual functions reach maturity, considered as the beginning of adolescence.
primary sex characteristics
Structures necessary for reproduction develop fully.
occurs in adolescence; unnecessary neural developments are destroyed.
Sense of Identity Theory
(Marcia) The presence or absence of a sense of commitment to life goals and a sense of crisis can combine to form different personality types.
A difficult, turbulent period of doubts and reappraisal of one's life that occurs approximately mid-way through the life span- the subject contemplates what they want to do and who they want to be with the remainder of their years (Not typical)
An abnormal condition marked by multiple cognitive deficits that include memory impairment; plaque build up is typical. (Can be caused by multiple diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's etc.)
intelligence which is much more likely to decrease with age.