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102 terms

Respiratory System

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respiratory system
moves air into and out of the lungs; site of exchange of O2 and CO2
respiration
process of gas exchange between atmosphere and body cells; exchange of O2 and CO2; atmosphere has 21% O
ventilation
movement of air into and out of lungs
homeostasis
may be a cause of pH imbalance; may help correct pH imbalance created by another cause; acid base balance expels CO2, which is acidic; fluid balance is fluid loss through the lungs; electrolyte balance
respiratory acidosis
occurs when rate or effeciency of respiration decreases, and have accumulation of CO2
respiratory alkalosis
occurs when rate of respiration increases and does not have enough CO2
protection by respiratory system
prevent foreign invasion; traps invaders with mucous and cilia; warms oxygen; reflexes such as cough, sneeze, hiccup and yawn
sound production by respiratory system
movement of air through the vocal cords
medulla oblongata
respiratory control center in the brain along with the pons
phrenic nerve
stimulates diaphragm; main muscle of breathing
CO2 levels
primary regulatory gas; adjust breathing according to CO2 level in blood which causes a lowering of blood's pH
hypoxemia
decrease blood O2; response is increased respirations
air concentrations
inhaled air is 21% O2; exhaled air is 16% O2
diffusion of O2 and CO2
occurs because of pressure of the O2 being pushed into capillary network; moves from higher concentration to lower concentration
external respiration
alveolar exchange; gas exchanged between lungs and blood; blood receives O2, lungs receive CO2
internal respiration
cellular exchange; gas exchange between cells and blood through capillaries; cells receive O2 and blood receives CO2
cellular respiration
oxidation; cellular use of O2 for body processes; cells use O2 and produce CO2
upper respiratory tract
above lungs; outside chest cavity; lined with mucous membranes that produce mucous and cilia
warm air
function of upper respiratory tract; very vascular; heat leaves blood vessels to warm the air
humidify air
function of upper respiratory tract; mucous membrane lining, or nasal mucosa, along respiratory tract is moist; moisture enters air
filter air
function of upper respiratory system; mucous secreted by mucous membrane is sticky; cilia located in respiratory tract traps large particles or dust; mucous is moved through upper respiratory tract by cilia to the throat where it is swallowed and destroyed by gastric secretions
nose
bone and cartilage lined with mucous membrane
Toucan Sam
follows his nose
nostrils (nares)
two openings through which air enters nasal cavity
nasal cavity
hollow space behind nose made up of bone and cartilage covered with skin
nasal septum
divides nasal cavity into two halves forming two chambers
nasal conchae
three nasal bones that increase the surface area which improves the ability to warm, moisten and filter
olfactory nerve
located in upper part of nasal cavity; gives us our sense of smell
paranasal sinuses
located in frontal, sphenoid and ethmoid bones and in maxilla; lined with mucous membranes and cilia; affects voice quality
pharynx
throat; posterior to nasal and oral cavities, located between nasal cavity and larynx; passageway for both air and food
nasopharynx
uppermost portion of pharynx; located nearest nasal cavity; passageway for air only; above level of soft palate; during swallowing, the soft palate covers to keep food from going up into the nose; contains eustachian tubes; contains adenoids (pharyngeal tonsil), which are located on the posterior wall (lymph node that contains macrophages)
eustachian tubes
equalize pressure in middle ear and allow eardrum to vibrate
oropharynx
middle portion of pharynx; behind the mouth; passage for food and air; palatine tonsils located here and made up of lymphatic tissue
laryngopharynx
lowest portion of pharynx; located nearest the larynx; passage of food and air
larynx
voice box; enlarged portion of airway below the pharynx, above the trachea; made of nine cartilages lined with ciliated epithelium; has muscles and fibrocartilage plates that keep it open, largest is Adam's apple, which is larger in men
vocal cords
two pair of horizontal folds of muscle and connective tissue; lined with mucous membrane; exhaled air vibrates the vocal cords, allowing for speech; false cords are upper set, produce no sound, help close the airway; true cords are lower set- air movement causes vibration which creates sound; movement of lips and tongue determine the type of sound
glottis
space between the true and false cords
epiglottis
flap of cartilage behind the tongue; uppermost cartilage; when swallowing, folds back to cover larynx to prevent aspiration
trachea
wind pipe; flexible tube located in front of esophagus; connects lower end of voice box to primary bronchii of lungs; lined with mucous membrane and cilia; muscle and 16-20 c-shaped cartilage rings prevent collapse; no cartilage on back side which allows for expansion of esophagus when swallowing
lower respiratory tract
parts within chest cavity
bronchial tree
trachea branches to form smaller and smaller airways inside the lungs, all the way to the alveoli
bronchi
first branches from trachea; right primary bronchus (right mainstem bronchus)- shorter, wider and straighter; left primary bronchus (left mainstem bronchus); both line with mucous membrane and cilia; have cartilage rings to hold airway open
bronchial tubes
larger branches from bronchi; continue to branch and get smaller; lined with mucous membrane and cilia; cartilage rings to hold the airway open
bronchioles
smallest branches of the bronchial tree; made of smooth muscle and cilia, no cartilage
alveolar ducts
connects bronchioles to alveolar sacs
alveolar sacs
alveoli; contain clusters of alveoli- tiny, microscopic airsacs; alveoli are type-2 cells, produce pulmonary surfactant to decrease the surface tension within the sac; lined with surfactant; site of gas exchange; adult lung contains approximately 500 million alveoli with a total surface area half the size of a tennis court; made of simple squamous epithelium which is very thin to allow for diffusion; any pathogens or air pollution that reaches the alveoli are usually destroyed by alveolar macrophages
surfactant
prevents the collapse of alveoli and helps with gas exchange
alveolar capillaries
dense network of capillaries surrounding the alveoli; external respiration occurs between the alveoli and alveolar capillary
hemoglobin and bicarbonate
most of the oxygen is transported through the blood attached to hemoglobin in RBCs; hemoglobin will release oxygen where the oxygen level is low; most CO2 is transported in blood as HCO3 ions in the plasma
pulmonary vein
transports oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart to be used throughout the body
aorta and carotid bodies
have chemoreceptors that detect decreases in blood-oxygen level; in hypoxia (not enough oxygen) breathing rate will increase to increase amount of O in blood; in response to high blood CO2 levels, the breathing rate will increase to exhale more CO2
lungs
two; composed of soft, spongy tissue; located in thoracic cavity, above the diaphragm, to the level of the clavicles, on either side of the heart, separated by the mediastinum; made of elastic connective tissue, which is important to make a normal exhalation a passive process
apex
upper portion of lung under the clavicle
base
lower portion of lung; curved to fit snugly against diaphragm
right lung
larger and broader, but shorter due to location of liver; divided into three lobes - superior, middle, inferior
left lung
smaller and more narrow, but longer; tilted to the left due to location of the heart; divided into two lobes- superior and inferior
pleura
moist membrane surrounding the lungs, double layered
visceral pleura
pulmonary pleura; lines each lung in between the lobes
parietal pleura
lines the thoracic cavity, including the upper side of the diaphragm
pleural space
between the pleural membrane layers; contains pleural fluid (serous fluid) for lubrication to decrease fluid
diaphragm
muscle located below the lungs; primary breathing muscle; separates thoracic and abdominal cavities; made of skeletal muscle; controls breathing; stimulated to contract by the phrenic nerve
mechanisms of breathing
process of moving air in and out of the lungs; works by difference in pressure; at rest, atmospheric pressure equals pressure inside the lungs; ventilation; inhalation (inspiration); exhalation (expiration)
inhalation (inspiration)
diaphragm contracts, pulling down; external intercostal muscles contract, pulling out and up; thoracic cavity enlarges, causing pressure inside the lungs to drop; atmospheric pressure is now higher, which pushes air into the lungs
exhalation (expiration)
passive act; diaphragm and external intercostals relax and move up; thoracic cavity decreases in size, causing pressure to rise; pressure in lungs is now higher, forcing air out
respiratory rate
number of respirations in one minute; one respiration=one inspiration + one expiration; normal is 12-20 respirations per minute
cough
forceful exhalation; clears lower respiratory airways
hiccoughs (hiccups)
spasms of the diaphragm; may be caused by irritation of the diaphragm or the phrenic nerve
sneeze
air forced out of upper respiratory tract to clear it
yawn
deep, prolonged breath; fills lungs more deeply
spirometer
measures lung capacity
tidal volume
amount of air that is inhaled and exhaled from the lungs or alveoli with each normal breath; average=500 mL
inspiratory reserve volume
amount of air a person can force in above the tidal volume; normal=2000-3000 mL
expiratory reserve volume
amount of air a person can force out after tidal volume; normal= 1000-1500 mL
vital lung capacity
volume of air with greatest inhalation followed by the most forceful exhalation; normal=3500-5000 mL
residual volume
amount of air left in lungs after full expiration; after expiratory reserve; cannot be exhaled voluntarily; allows gas exchange between breaths; average amount=1000-1500 mL
eupnea
normal breathing at a normal rate, pattern and depth; non-labored breathing
apnea
stopped breathing; without breathing
dyspnea
difficulty breathing; may be labored or painful; patient complains of shortness of breath
hyperpnea
increased rate and depth of breathing
orthopnea
positional breathing; difficulty breathing when lying down
tachypnea
increased rate of respirations; results in shallow depth
hyperventilation
rapid breathing; too much CO2 lost, upsetting acid-base balance, causing respiratory alkalosis; may become dizzy or faint; may be caused by stress or disease
cheyne-stokes respirations
abnormal respiration pattern often preceding death; slow and shallow; abnormally deep and fast; slows and then apnic period
kussmaul respirations
abnormally deep and rapid; sign of very high blood sugar; body attempts to maintain acid-base balance by getting rid of CO2; often, breath has fruity or acetone smell
pharyngitis
inflammation of the throat; sore throat; caused by irritation or infection
laryngitis
inflammation of the larynx; voice may become scratchy or disappear
sinusitis
inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the sinuses
bronchitis
inflammation of the trachea or bronchial tubes; excess mucous causes coughing
pleurisy
inflammation of the pleura; causes pain with each breath
rhinitis
inflammation of the mucous membrane lining of the nose; runny nose
pneumonia
infection in the lungs; causes the alveoli to fill with exudates (pus, fluids); causes decreased gas exchange; elderly patients are at a higher risk due to decreased lung expansion
atelectasis
alveoli collapse; common complication following surgery, when a patient will not take deep breaths
tuberculosis
primarily affects the lungs, causing lesions seen on xrays; tb skin test done for exposure
TB, or not TB!
That is the congestion!
pertussis
whooping cough; prevented with vaccine
pneumothorax
collapsed lung; when air fills pleural space; increased pressure in pleural space; causes lungs to be compressed so lung cannot fill with air
hemathorax
lung filled with blood
asthma
constriction of airways in bronchial tree; restricts movement of air in and out of the lungs
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis
emphysema
alveoli become overdilated, trapping air; difficult to exhale; if severe, can lead to respiratory acidosis
chronic bronchitis
chronic inflammation of the bronchial tree, causing cough and sputal production
pulmonary embolism
embolus that becomes lodged in blood vessels surrounding the lungs; prevents gas exchange in that area; causes pain and dyspnea