you be the chemist (state vocab)
vocab for you be the chemist
Terms in this set (89)
Relative Atomic Mass
The weighted average mass of all an element's isotopes compared with one-twelfth the mass of one atom of carbon-12. (Atomic weight)
An amount of substance containing 6.02 x 10(23) particles.
States that for equal volumes of gasses at the same temperature and pressure, the gasses will have equal numbers of molecules.
A homogeneous mixture of one or more substances (the solutes) dissolved in another substance (the solvent).
The substance of greater quantity in the solution.
The substance of less quantity in the solution.
The amount of solute in the solution.
Percent Composition by Mass (%)
The mass of the solute divided by the mass of the solution (the mass of the solute plus the mass of the solvent), multiplied by 100.
The number of moles of solute per liter of solution (which is not necessarily the same as the volume of solvent).
The point at which no more of a solute can be dissolved into a solvent.
A solution that contains more dissolved solute than a saturated solution and is usually not stable.
Solvents made up of molecules that have an uneven distribution of electrons, creating a negative and positive side. Generally, polar solutes will only dissolve in polar solvents. (Water)
Solvents made up of molecules that have an even distribution of electrons with the charges on the molecules neutralized. Non-polar solutes generally only dissolve in non-polar solvents. (Oil)
means "water fearing." Molecules that are different from water in terms of their polarity do not mix with it. They repel water and are said to "fear" it.
means "water loving." Polar molecules, like water molecules, tend to mix well with water. They are said to "love" water.
Describe Important Physical Properties of Solutions
Freezing point depression, Boiling point elevation and Osomotic pressure.
Solutions (or chemical compounds dissolved in water) that have an excess of hydrogen ions (H+).
Solutions (or chemical compounds dissolved in water) that have an excess of hydroxide ions (OH-) and accept H+ ions from acids.
A substance that behaves as either an acid or a base and is able to neutralize both bases and acids.
The pH scale is used to measure the acidity of a solution and ranges from 0 (acid) to 14 (base). Water has a neutral pH of 7.0.
Substances that change color at a specific pH. Litmus paper turns red in acid and blue in basic solutions. Phenolphthalein solution changes from clear to pink for a pH greater than 9. Bromothymol Blue (BTB) turns yellow in acid and blue in basic solutions.
The study of carbon-based or carbon-containing compounds.
A class of chemical compounds that contain the element carbon. (Hydrogen, living, held together by covalent bonds) The few carbon-containing compounds that are not classified as organic include carbon dioxide, carbides, carbonates and cyanides.
A class of chemical compounds produced either by natural processes or by humans in a laboratory. (Minerals, metals, alloys and pure water.)
The simplest organic compounds. Made only of carbon and hydrogen atoms. (Alkanes, alkenes and alkynes)
Hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds. They are easily combusted and provide energy. (Methane and Ethane)
Hydrocarbons that contain one or more double bonds between the carbon atoms in each molecule. At least two carbon atoms must be present in an alkene. (Ethene)
Hydrocarbons that contain one or more triple bonds. (Ethyne)
Hydrocarbon Resources (Fossil Fuels)
Fuels that come from the remains of living organisms that died millions of years ago. (Coal, oil, and natural gas)
A black to brownish-black sedimentary rock that is rich in hydrocarbons.
An exothermic reaction between a substance (the fuel) and a gas (the oxidizer) to release heat. Commonly called "burning".
A mixture of mostly hydrocarbon compounds. Must be refined through a process called fractional distillation.
A method of separating a mixture into its components based on their relative boiling points.
Complex organic compounds consisting of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and occasionally sulfur. Proteins are involved in almost all cell functions, helping the body to grow and to repair damage. (Enzymes & hormones)
The body uses protein to make hemoglobin, a component of red blood cells that carries oxygen through the body.
The building blocks of proteins. Proteins are made of long chains of amino acids. Essential amino acids cannot be made by the human body and must be obtained from food.
The most abundant group of organic compounds found in living organisms. These chemicals are broken down during chemical processes known as metabolism to generate energy. They serves as the main source of energy in the human body. (Sugars)
Simple sugars that cannot be broken down further. (Glucose or fructose)
Sugars composed of two monosaccharides.
Relatively complex carbohydrates composed of many monosaccharide units joined together. (most)
A type of organic compound that are found insoluble in water and play an important role in insulation and regulation of body functions. (Fats)
Triglycerols (fats and oils)
Organic compounds that are part of the lipid family, made up of a glycerol (a type of alcohol) and three fatty acids. (Body fat and Butter)
Important biologically-active compounds in the lipids family. (Cholesterol)
A major component of cell membranes that is produced in a variety of body tissues, such as the liver, and obtained through food.
Large molecules that carry genetic information and direct cellular functions. (DNA and RNA)
A nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the biological development of all cellular life forms. (Double helix structure)
A nucleic acid that transmits genetic information from DNA to proteins made by the cell. (Single stranded chain structure)
Fat- or water-soluble organic substances, obtained naturally from plants and animal foods. They are essential for the normal growth and activity of the body.
She used x-ray crystallography to determine the structures of penicillin, vitamin B12 and insulin. Her research allowed scientists to develop treatments for diseases and deficiencies, such as anemia and diabetes. Won Nobel Peace prize in chemistry.
An important food process in which microorganisms are growth on a sugar-based medium. (milk to cheese or yogurt; sugar to alcohol for beer or wine)
Common Chemicals at Home
Baking Soda (sodium bicarbonate), Table Salt (sodium chloride), Table Sugar (sucrose) and Carbonated Water (carbonic acid). Iodine (used to disinfect cuts and wounds).
Water-soluable carbohydrates. (Like Glucose, which is stored by most animals in the form of Glycogen, a cellulose polymer.)
Fehling's and Benedict's Solutions
A way to test for sugars. An alkaline solution that forms a brick-red precipitate when heated with a substance containing simple sugar. Benedict's is used more often today.
A polymer, consisting of many glucose units. Formed by plants to store excess glucose.
A polymer, like alpha-amylose starch, that consists of linear chains of glucose molecules. However, the bonds between the glucose units have a different orientation.
A form of seasoning made from plants that affects the flavor of food through chemical reactions that occur with the receptors on your tongue. Black pepper (peppercorn) or Red (chili) pepper.
A naturally produced molecule in the seeds, leaves and fruits of many plants. Caffeine stimulates the central nervous system, heart rate and respiration process in humans.
A relative of the caffeine molecule that is the key ingredient in chocolate. Comes from the cacao or cocoa tree. It has similar effects as caffeine, but weaker.
Food Preservation: Drying
A preservation method that removes water from food to precent bacterial growth.
Food Preservation: Smoking
A preservation method in which meat or fish is dried in a smoke-house. Smoking dries the meat, while also flavoring it.
Food Preservation: Salting
A preservation method that uses salt to draw water out of the meat through a process called osmosis.
The diffusion of certain molecules across semi-permeable cell membranes (walls).
Food Preservation: Freeze-Drying
A special form of drying in which the food is frozen and then placed under a strong vacuum. The water in the food sublimes (going directly from a solid to a vapor) and is immediately removed by the vacuum.
Food Preservation: Pickling
A method of preserving fruits and vegetables by soaking them in brine (a salt solution) and then storing them in an acid solution, usually vinegar.
Food Preservation: Canning
A preservation method that involves cooking fruits or vegetables and sealing them in sterile cans or jars. Once the filled, the containers are boiled to kill any remaining bacteria.
Food Preservation: Pasteurization
The process of heating liquids to kill bacteria, molds and yeast. (Milk)
Food Preservation: Carbonation
A process by which carbon dioxide is dissolved in a beverage under pressure. It eliminates oxygen and prevents bacterial growth.
Known for demonstrating that disease is caused by germs and for his development of techniques to establish resistance to disease. Invented the process known a 'pasteurization'.
A mixture of hydrocarbons used mainly as a fuel for automobiles. Made from crude oil. Molecules have 5 to 10 carbons in each hydrocarbon chain (heptane, octane & decane)
A rating of how much Gasoline can be compressed before it suddenly ignites on its own.
A mixture of hydrocarbons that come from crude oil. The hydrocarbon chains contain between 14 and 20 carbons.
Cetane Number (Cetane Rating)
A measure of the combustion (ignition) quality of diesel fuel based on the percentage of cetane in the fuel.
A chemical that is mixed with water and added to the cooling system of a car. It moves through the engine to remove extra heat.
A diluted sulfuric acid used in storage batteries. Cars use lead-acid batteries that supply electric energy.
An essential element for life because it is a component of hair, muscle tissues and the hormone insulin. In its natural state it is found near hot springs and volcanoes; it smells like rotten eggs.
Homogeneous mixtures made of two or more metals or of a metal and nonmetal. (Brass, bronze and steel)
Long, chain-like molecules that are formed by connecting many repeating units (monomer units). (Polyester for wrinkle-free fabrics)
A single molecule capable of combining with other similar molecules.
Combining monomers to create a polymer.
Additional polymerization (chain)
Bonding of monomers to form giant molecules without byproducts.
Condensation polymerization (step)
Combining of monomers to produce some additional byproduct, such as water.
Organic compounds produced by polymerization, that can be molded, cast into shapes or drawn into fibers. (Thermosets and Thermoplastics)
Plastics that retain their shape after being formed through heat and pressure. Thermosets cannot be remolded.
Plastics that soften when heated and harden again when cooled. Because they can be remolded, they are fully recyclable. (Acrylic Tank)
Plastics that can be broken down over time in the presence of water and/or enzymes.
A group of polymers found in or produced by living organisms. (Starch, sugar, cellulose) (DNA & RNA found in the body)
A stretchy polymer made from latex, a milky substance found in trees. It can be VULCANIZED by heating it with sulfur to make it stronger. The polymer is CROSS-LINKED when the sulfur forms disulfide bridges between strands of the rubber, not allowing it to move around as much.
An Italian chemist known for his contributions to the theory of molarity and molecular weight. Avogadro's Law.
An essential building block of all organic compounds and forms more compounds than any other element. A main constituent of DNA, proteins & carbohydrates. A main component of widely used fuels.