How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

116 terms

Cancer

STUDY
PLAY
cytology
study of cells
carcinogenesis
process by which normal cells are transformed into cancer cells
carcinogens
substances which increase chance of cancer
apoptosis
preprogrammed cell death, the apoptotic process is executed in such a way as to safely dispose of cell corpses and fragments
angiogenesis
a physiological process involving the growth of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels
prevention, care for the patient on chemotherapy and radiation
what is the focus of care for the patient with cancer
after menstrual cycle ends
when should the breast self exam(BRE) be done
inspection, palpation, and pads of fingertips
what technique is used while performing BRE
dimpling, discharge from nipples, change in size or appearance
abnormalities to report when doing a BRE
done monthly starting in high school, after a warm bath or shower
when should the testicular self exam(TSE) be done
young men, teens and 20s
what population does testicular cancer affect
smooth consistency, the same size, left testis lower than right testis, may feel spermatic cord behind scrotum, may be a little tender
normal findings when doing a TSE
baseline 35-39, annually after age 40
when should a women get a mammogram
annually for men and women over the age of 50
how often should a fecal occult blood test and colonoscopy be done to prevent colorectal cancer
annually starting at age 18 or when becoming sexually active
when should a papanicolaou(PAP) smear be done
PAP smear
simple procedure that collects cells from the cervix, detects cervical cancer and changes in cervical cells that suggests cancer development
lithotomy
what position should the patient be in for a PAP smear
sexual intercourse, douching, using vaginal meds, spermicidal foams, creams, or jellies 2 days before, while on menses
what to avoid when having a PAP smear
colposcopy
scope to visualize cervix and vagina, staining done to visualize unhealthy cells
conization
cone sized piece taken from the cevix
deoderant, creams, lotions
what to avoid before having a mammogram done
mammography
radiograph of the breast tissue
annually after the age of 50
when men should have prostate specific antigen(PSA) done
0-4
normal range for PSA
digital rectal exam(DRE)
done to check for abnormalities of organs or other structures of the pelvis and abdomen, checks prostate in men
firm, rubbery, size of a walnut
normal findings of prostate in men when performing a DRE
bumpy=cancer, boggy=infection
abnormal findings of prostate in men when performing a DRE
neoplasm
any abnormal growth of new tissue
metastasis
malignant neoplasms multiply and spread to distant parts of the body through the blood stream or lymph system
hyperplasia
increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue, number of cells gets bigger
hypertrophy
increase in the size of cells and subsequently the size of an organ, actual cells get bigger
metaplasia
one adult cell type is replaced by another cell type
anaplasia
irreversible change where adult cells regress to more primitive state
slow growth, remains localized, usually encapsulated, smooth, well defined, resembles parent tissue, crowds normal tissue, rarely fatal
characteristics of benign neoplasms
growth rate varies, metastasizes, rarely encapsulated, irregular, does not resemble parent tissue, invades normal tissue, may recur, fatal without treatment
characteristics of malignant neoplasms
tumors
described according to the site of the primary tumor, the type of tissue involved or the person who identified it
adenomas
cancer of grandular tissue
lymphomas
cancer occurring in infection fighting tissue, lymphatic tissue
leukemias
cancers occurring in blood forming organs
carcinomas
cancers occurring in epithelial tissues
sarcomas
cancers occurring in connective tissue
abnormal cell invasion
phase one of tumor formation
tumor is there but not invading, easy to get out
phase two of tumor formation
angiogenesis/invasion occurs
phase three of tumor formation
matastasis
phase four of tumor formation
cancer staging
determines the extent of the spread of cancer
T- tumor, N - node, M - metastasis
TNM staging classification system
the higher the number the more cancer
rule when staging and grading cancer
Tx
tumor cannot be assessed
T0
no evidence of primary tumor
Tis
carcinoma in situ
T1, T2, T3
progressive increase in tumor size and involvement
carcinoma in situ
tumor is there but not invasive or moving
Nx
regional lymph nodes cannot be assessed
N0
no regional nodes metastasis
N1, N2, N3
increasing lymph node involvement
Mx
not assessed
M0
no known distant metastasis
M1
distant metastasis present, specify sites
grading
based on the degree of malignancy which is determined by the ability of the cell to perform its function
biopsy
what is the most definitive way to diagnosis cancer
watch for bleeding
priority when a tissue biopsy has been taken
ultrasound
determines the difference between solid mass and fluid filled cyst
to know if the tumor has come back
why would a patient receive a carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) and prostate specific antigen(PSA) test a year after chemotherapy
PSA ia elevated, blood with DRE
when is a transrectal ultrasound of the prostate done
no stimulants before the test and not pregnant nurses or patients
priority when doing a transrectal ultrasound of the prostate
to remove all malignant cells
goal of surgery for cancer
curative surgery
to heal or restore health
palliative surgery
relieve or reduce symptoms
reconstructive surgery
may follow curative surgery to re-establish function or for cosmetic effect
radiation therapy
use of high energy moving through space or medium to interrupt cellular growth, used to treat solid tumors
bone marrow suppression
what is the main side effect of radiation therapy
pancytopenia
bone marrow suppression that includes anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia
pallor
what is a late sign of anemia
signs of thrombocytopenia
echymosis, petechiea, hematuria, purpura, epitaxis, hemarthrosis, basically any kind of bleeding
radiation ports
marks on skin to indicate where radiation will be directed
no lotion, creams, or powders, no restrictive clothing
things to avoid with radiation ports
wash gently and pat dry, do not expose to sun or chlorine, may have moist desquamation
priority with radiation ports
moist desquamation
weeping skin
limit time with patient to 10 minutes, keep long handed forceps and lead container if implant becomes dislodged, strict bedrest, stand furthest away from site being treated, monitor for bone marrow suppression
priorities with internal radiation
chemotherapy
interferes with the cancer cell's ability to reproduce
rapidly dividing cells, hematopoietic system(bone marrow), hair follicles, GI system
what type of cell does chemotherapy effect
risk for infection, no flowers or fresh veggies
priority with leukopenia
low residue diet to reduce GI bleeding
priority with thrombocytopenia
pancytopenia
decrease in WBC(leukopenia), RBC(anemia), platelets(thrombocytopenia)
neutropenia
form of leukopenia affecting neutrophils
normal platelet count
150,000-4000,000
normal RBC count
4-6 million
normal WBC count
5,000-10,000
stomatitis
inflammation of the oral mucosa
no citrus, no acid, no spicy foods, no floss, no commercial mouth washes
things to avoid with stomatitis
use soft toothbrush, ice chips to numb, rinse mouth with normal saline or baking soda every 2-4 hours
priority in stomatitis
at risk for imbalanced nutrition: less than body requirements due to anorexia and poor oral intake
nursing diagnosis related to stomatitis
alopecia
loss of hair due to the destruction of hair follicles
let the patient know that hair loss is temporary and will grow back the same
what to tell the patient for comfort with alopecia
metabolic alkalosis
what acid base imbalance occurs with nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy
give antiemetics 30 minutes before
how to reduce nausea and vomiting when giving chemotherapy
chemotherapy side effects
pancytopenia, stomatitis, alopecia, nausea, vomiting, tumor lysis syndrome
tumor lysis syndome
oncologic emergency with rapid lysis(death) of malignant cells
hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperuricemia
electrolyte imbalances caused by tumor lysis syndrome
treatment for tumor lysis syndrome
hydration, push fluids
bone marrow transplant
replaces diseased or damaged marrow with normal marrow after high dose of chemotherapy or body irradiation
peripheral stem cell transplantation
alternative to bone marrow transplant with shorter recovery time and fewer, less severe complications
purchase scarfs or wigs
what should you have the patient on chemotherapy do before treatment starts
no turning or bathing, no movement
how to prevent internal radiation from becoming dislodged
apply prolonged pressure
priority when giving an injection for a patient with pancytopenia
BRE, TSE, colonoscopy, diet, limit sun exposure, low fat , high fiber diet
ways to prevent cancer
around the clock dosage
when to give pain meds with endstage cancer
patient maintains a stable weight
how do you know when nutritional needs for the cancer patient have been met
C in caution
changes in bowel or bladder habits(colorectal)
A in caution
a sore that does not heal(basal or squamous cell carcinoma)
U in caution
unusual bleeding or discharge(any kind of cancer)
T in caution
thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere(breast or testicular cancer)
I in caution
indigestion or difficulty swallowing(gastric or esophageal cancer)
O in caution
obvious change in warts or moles(mylenoma)
N in caution
nagging cough or hoarseness(lung, laryngeal cancer)