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a hybrid of English and Italian sonnet (examples include "Ozymandias," "Work Without Hope," and "Leda and the Swan")
has a rhyme scheme of ababcdcdefefgg and is usually printed as a single stanza/contains three English quatrains plus a heroic couplet
cast in two stanzas, an octave ryhming abbaabba and a sestet with a variable rhyme scheme
when a nonhuman thing, abstraction, or person not physically present is directly addressed
A casual reference in literature to a person, place, event, or another passage of literature, often without explicit identification
how stories and poems were passed down from generation to generation prior to the printed word
originally comprised brief poems that were meant to be sung or changed to the accompaniment of a lyre. Today, it includes virtually all poems that are primarily about a subject and contain little narrative content. The subject might be poet's emotions or an abstract idea, a satirical insight, or a description of person or place.
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