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32 terms

Biology Chapter 13 Vocab

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Ecology
the study of interactions among living and non living things along with their environment
Community
a group of different species that live together in one species
Ecosystem
all of the organisms as well as climate, soil, water, rocks and nonliving things
Biome
a major regional or global community of organisms characterized by the climate
Biotic
living things (such as plants, animals, fungi and bacteria)
Abiotic
non-living things (such as climate, moisture, temperature, sunlight, and wind)
Biodiversity
variety of living things within a ecosystem
Keystone Species
has an unusually large effect on its ecosystem
Producer
organisms that get their energy from nonliving resources, meaning they make their own food
Autotroph
also called producers
Consumer
organism that gets its energy from living or once living things like plants and animals
Heterotroph
also called consumers
Chemosynthesis
the process by which ATP is synthesized by using chemicals as an energy souce than light
Food Chain
model that shows a sequence of feeding relationships
Herbivore
organisms that eat only plants
Carnivore
organisms that eat only animals
Omnivore
organisms that eat both plants and animals
Detritivore
orgamisms that eat detritus, or dead organic matter
Decomposer
detritivores that break down organic matter into simpler compounds
Specialist
consumer that primarily eats one specific organism or feeds on a very small number of organisms
Generalist
consumers that have a varying diet
Trophic Level
level of nourishment in a food chain
Food Web
model that shows the complex network of feeding relationships and the flow of energy within and sometimes beyond an ecosystem
Hydrologic Cycle
(also known as the water cycle) pathway of water from the atmosphere to Earth's surface below ground, and back
Biogeochemical Cycle
the movement of a particular chemical through the biological and geological (living and nonliving) parts of an ecosystem
Nitrogen Fixation
process by which certain types of bacteria convert gaesous nitrogen into nitrogen compounds
Transpiration
evaporation that occurs between plants leaves and the atmosphere
Carbon Sinks
area that stores carbon over long periods of time
Nitrification
bacteria change ammonium into nitrate
Ammonification
process in which nitrogen is returned to the soil as ammonium
Biomass
total dry mass of all organisms in a given area
Energy Pyramid
diagram that compares energy used by producers, primary consumers and other trophic levels