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TAKS Vocab 2

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Homeostasis
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal enviroment.
Permeability
the characteristic of allowing a substance to pass through.
Photosynthesis
the process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and CO2 into oxygen and high energy carbonates such as sugars and starches.
Cellular Respiration
the process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen.
Synthesis
The combining of parts or elements to form a new substance.
Phenotype
PHysical characteristic of an organism. Think of a photograph that shows what an organism looks like.
Genotype
Genetic makeup of an organism.
Dominant
A trait that is always visible.
Recessive
A trait that is only seen if an allele is homozygous.
Mutation
Change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information.
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic Acid that is a molecule found in cells of all organisms that contains the genetic information that controls what cell can do and what types of molecules it makes.
Nucleotides
The basic unit of DNA that is comprised of sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base.
Nitrogenous Bases
The four bases of DNA that make up nucleotides. (Adenine, Gaunine, Cytosine, Thymine)
Complementary Bases
The opposite, or complement, of a specific Nitrogenous Base.
Replication
The process during mitosis where DNA is replicated exactly to form 2 identical strands.
mRNA
During protein production, mRNA makes a copy of the DNA strand in order to carry that message to a different location in a cell.
Transcription
The process of copying the genetic information in the DNA and the mRNA.
Codon
3-letter blocks that are used in the mRNA to create amino acids and thus, proteins
Translation
The process in which a protein is produced from mRNA.
Deletion
A type of mutation that can occur where there is a portion of the DNA structure left off.
Genetic Engineering
Any method that people use to change an organisms's genes.
Prokaryotes
Organisms whose cells lack nuclei.
Eukaryotes
Organisms whose cells contain a nuclei.
Nucleus
Acts as the command center of the cell and controls its activities.
Organelle.
A structure within a cell that performs a specific function.
Chloroplasts
The cells of plants and some protists use these pigmented organelles in the production of energy.
Mitosis
The entire process of cell division including division of the nucleus and the cytoplasm.
Meiosis
Process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through separation of homologous chromosomes.
Mitochondria
Break down of food molecules such as glucose in order to release energy that can be used for growth, health maintenance, and reproduction.