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process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal enviroment.


the characteristic of allowing a substance to pass through.


the process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and CO2 into oxygen and high energy carbonates such as sugars and starches.

Cellular Respiration

the process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen.


The combining of parts or elements to form a new substance.


PHysical characteristic of an organism. Think of a photograph that shows what an organism looks like.


Genetic makeup of an organism.


A trait that is always visible.


A trait that is only seen if an allele is homozygous.


Change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information.


Deoxyribonucleic Acid that is a molecule found in cells of all organisms that contains the genetic information that controls what cell can do and what types of molecules it makes.


The basic unit of DNA that is comprised of sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base.

Nitrogenous Bases

The four bases of DNA that make up nucleotides. (Adenine, Gaunine, Cytosine, Thymine)

Complementary Bases

The opposite, or complement, of a specific Nitrogenous Base.


The process during mitosis where DNA is replicated exactly to form 2 identical strands.


During protein production, mRNA makes a copy of the DNA strand in order to carry that message to a different location in a cell.


The process of copying the genetic information in the DNA and the mRNA.


3-letter blocks that are used in the mRNA to create amino acids and thus, proteins


The process in which a protein is produced from mRNA.


A type of mutation that can occur where there is a portion of the DNA structure left off.

Genetic Engineering

Any method that people use to change an organisms's genes.


Organisms whose cells lack nuclei.


Organisms whose cells contain a nuclei.


Acts as the command center of the cell and controls its activities.


A structure within a cell that performs a specific function.


The cells of plants and some protists use these pigmented organelles in the production of energy.


The entire process of cell division including division of the nucleus and the cytoplasm.


Process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through separation of homologous chromosomes.


Break down of food molecules such as glucose in order to release energy that can be used for growth, health maintenance, and reproduction.

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