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24 terms

Botany Exam 2 Ch. 10

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Solutes
the dissolved substance in a solution
Symplastic Transport
Movement of substances through the interior of cells (within the cytoplasm)
Apoplastic Transport
The movement of molecules within the cell walls throughout a plant.
Diffusion
Tendency of molecules to spread out spontaneously within the available space, from a region of higher solute concentration to a region of lower concentration.
Osmosis
Movement of water or other solvent across a selectively permeable membrane.
Osmotic Potential
Measurement of differing water's tendency to move across a membrane as a result of solute concentration
Hypertonic
Describing a solution with higher solute concentration than another.
Hypotonic
Describing a solution with with lower solute concentration than another.
Plasmolysis
A condition in which a plasma membrane shrinks away from its cell wall, caused by net flow of water out of the cell.
Adhesion
The attraction between different kinds of molecules.
Cohesion
Attraction between identical molecules; Causes water to have a high boiling point.
Source
a process by which energy or a substance enters a system
Sink
descend into or as if into some soft substance or place
Soil (solution)
The combination of water, dissolved mineral ions, and dissolved O2; source of macro- and micro- nutrients for plants.
Sand
The largest of soil particles, 0.02 to 2 millimeters in diameter.
Silt
Medium-sized soil particles, 0.002 to 0.02 millimeter in diameter.
Clay
The smallest soil particles, smaller than 0.002 millimeter in diameter.
Humus
partially decomposed organic matter; organic component of soil
Leaching
downward movement of minerals and humus in soils
Hydroponics
Soil-less gardening in which mineral nutrients normally supplied by the soil are mixed into a liquid solution used to water the plant roots.
Micronutrient
An essential chemical element, such as copper or zinc, used in small amounts by a plant.
Macronutrient
An essential chemical element, such as nitrogen or phosphorus used in large amounts for producing the body of the plant and for carrying out essential physiological processes.
Nitrogen Fixation
The conversion of nitrogen gas into nitrate or ammonium ions by soil bacteria.
Root Nodules
A structure on a root where nitrogen-fixing bacteria live.