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the dissolved substance in a solution

Symplastic Transport

Movement of substances through the interior of cells (within the cytoplasm)

Apoplastic Transport

The movement of molecules within the cell walls throughout a plant.


Tendency of molecules to spread out spontaneously within the available space, from a region of higher solute concentration to a region of lower concentration.


Movement of water or other solvent across a selectively permeable membrane.

Osmotic Potential

Measurement of differing water's tendency to move across a membrane as a result of solute concentration


Describing a solution with higher solute concentration than another.


Describing a solution with with lower solute concentration than another.


A condition in which a plasma membrane shrinks away from its cell wall, caused by net flow of water out of the cell.


The attraction between different kinds of molecules.


Attraction between identical molecules; Causes water to have a high boiling point.


a process by which energy or a substance enters a system


descend into or as if into some soft substance or place

Soil (solution)

The combination of water, dissolved mineral ions, and dissolved O2; source of macro- and micro- nutrients for plants.


The largest of soil particles, 0.02 to 2 millimeters in diameter.


Medium-sized soil particles, 0.002 to 0.02 millimeter in diameter.


The smallest soil particles, smaller than 0.002 millimeter in diameter.


partially decomposed organic matter; organic component of soil


downward movement of minerals and humus in soils


Soil-less gardening in which mineral nutrients normally supplied by the soil are mixed into a liquid solution used to water the plant roots.


An essential chemical element, such as copper or zinc, used in small amounts by a plant.


An essential chemical element, such as nitrogen or phosphorus used in large amounts for producing the body of the plant and for carrying out essential physiological processes.

Nitrogen Fixation

The conversion of nitrogen gas into nitrate or ammonium ions by soil bacteria.

Root Nodules

A structure on a root where nitrogen-fixing bacteria live.

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