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36 terms

Chapter 9-Thinking and Language

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linguistic determination
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
Wernicke's area
controls language reception-a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe
Broca's area
controls language expression-an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
aphasia
impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area or to Wernicke's area
telegraphic speech
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram using mostly nouns and verbs
two-word stage
beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements
one-word stage
the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words
babbling stage
beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
syntax
the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language
semantics
the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning
grammar
in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate and understand others
morpheme
in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix)
phoneme
in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
language
our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning
framing
the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements
intuition
an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning
belief perseverance
clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
overconfidence
the tendency to be more confident than correct-to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments
availability heuristic
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common
representatives heuristic
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant info
functional fixedness
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving
mental set
a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
fixation
the inability to see a problem from a new perspective, by employing a different mental set
confirmation bias
a tendency to search for info that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence
insight
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions
heuristic
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms
algorithm
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. contrasts with the use of heuristics
prototype
a mental image or best example of a category. matching new items to it provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories
concept
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
cognition
the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
Linguistic relativism
Different languages have their own words and concepts and these limit thinking processes
Doublespeak
Language designed to alter our perception of reality and influence our thinking
Euphemisms
A positive phrase used to avoid a negative reality
Jargon
Specialized language for a trade or profession that influences our thinking
Gobbledygook
Piling on words to overwhelm an audience
Inflated language
Using words to attempt to make the ordinary seem extraordinary