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controls language reception-a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe
controls language expression-an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area or to Wernicke's area
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram using mostly nouns and verbs
beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements
the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words
beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning
in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix)
the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements
an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning
clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
the tendency to be more confident than correct-to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant info
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving
a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past
a tendency to search for info that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. contrasts with the use of heuristics
a mental image or best example of a category. matching new items to it provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories
Different languages have their own words and concepts and these limit thinking processes
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