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Alexander Kerensky

An agrarian socialist who became prime minister. Headed the Provisional Government in 1917. Refused to redistribute confiscated landholdings to the peasants. Thought fighting the war was a national duty.


in World War I the alliance of Great Britain and France and Russia and all the other nations that became allied with them in opposing the Central Powers

Archduke Francis Ferdinand

heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary killed by a terrorist from Bosnia who wanted Bosnia to break away from Austria-Hungary to join Serbia.

Article 231

This was the "war-guilt clause" in the Treaty of Versailles that placed total responsibility for World War I on Germany.

Balkan Wars

2 wars (1912-1913) that were fought over the last of the European territories of the Ottoman Empire and that left the area around Constantinople (now Istanbul) as the only Ottoman territory in Europe

Belgian Congo

In 1879 King Leopold II hired H.M. Stanley to make treaties with African chiefs, giving control of the Congo to Leopold. It became his personal playground and was recognized as such in 1884 by the Berlin conference. Was quested for its rubber and ivory. Soldiers of the Belgian army forced the natives to do work and treated them savagely, often cutting off their hands to prove they used ammunition on humans when they were really using the ammunition on wildlife. Twain and author Conan Doyle spoke out. The Belgian Parliament was horrified and took the colony away from the king in 1908 and it became a Belgian colony.

Big Four

The Big Four were the four most important leaders, and the most important ones at the Paris Peace Conference. They were Woodrow Wilson- USA, David Lloyd George- UK, George Clemenceau- France, and Vittorio Orlando- Italy.

Black Hand

the Serbian terrorist group that planned to assassinate Franz Ferdinand, part of the Pan-Slavism nationalist movement, with the intention of uniting all of the territories containing South Slav populations (Serbs, Croats, Macedonians, Slovenes, etc) annexed by Austria-Hungary.

Blank Check

Promise of support from Germany to Austria-Hungary after Ferdinand's assassination; Austria-Hungary sought reprisals against Serbia

Central Powers

World War I alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire

Congress of Berlin

(1878) Assembly of representatives from Germany, Russia, Hungary, Britain, France, Italy, and the Ottoman Empire. Meeting was to reorganize the countries of the Balkans - led to greater nationalism.

Dual Alliance

pact between Germany and Austria, each promising to come to the other's aid if attacked by Russia and to minimally remain neutral if the other was attacked by another country

Dual Monarchy

The joining of Austria and Hungary under two different crowns


Elected Russian Parliament. Though through establishing this is seemed like the Czar was giving his people power, in reality he could easily get rid of this if they made any laws or such that he didn't like.

Entente Cordiale

The 1904 "gentleman's agreement" between France and Britain establishing a close understanding led to their alliance in World War 1

Fourteen Points

It was Wilson's peace plan. Each of the points were designed to prevent future wars. He compromised each point at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. The only point which remained was the 14th (League of Nations). Each one was appealing to a specific group in the war and each one held a specific purpose.

Franco-Russian Alliance

early 1894- was to remain in effect as long as the Triple Alliance existed- result=continental Europe was divided into two rival alliances

Gavrilo Princip

Member of a terrorist organization called The Black Hand. Helped to end the optimistic Progressive era in America. Murdered Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife. Wanted to set Bosnia free from Austria-Hungary


the domination of one state over its allies


extreme, chauvinistic patriotism, often favoring an aggressive, warlike foreign policy

League of Nations

International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s.

Moroccan Crises

Kaiser Wilhelm tested the British and French Entente Cordiale, the British had given France the green light to take over Morocco, but Germany intervened twice to test the alliance, Britain supports France both times and the Entente holds

New Imperialism

Historians' term for the late-19th & early-20th century wave of conquests by European powers, the United States, and Japan, which were followed by the development and exploitation of the newly conquered territories.

Nicholas II

Last tsar of Russia, he went to the frontlines in WWI to try to rally the troops, but was forced to abdicate after his wife made horrible decisions under the influence of Rasputin.

Open Door Policy

A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.

Peace, bread, and land

Lenin's slogan in the Revolution. Peace from the war; Land for the peasants; Food for all, A demand of the communist Bolsheviks with aims of attracting support from the common people, who were unaware of the communist goals.


the working class

Provisional Government

The government established in 1917 which replaced Nicholas II when he abdicated. The only mistake of this government was not getting Russia out of the brutal World War I.


Self-proclaimed holy man who claimed to heal the sick and have prophecy. He had much influence over Tsarina Alexandra and she often went to him for advise on political issues. He was believed to be having a sexual affair with Tsarina Alexandra and was assassinated by three members of the higher aristocracy; Tsarina Alexandra was very distraught and depressed due to his death.

Red Russians

Bolsheviks; organization of professional revolutionaries under a strict internal hierarchy governed by the principle of democratic centralism and quasi-military discipline


As part of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was ordered to pay fines to the Allies to repay the costs of the war. Opposed by the U.S., it quickly lead to a severe depression in Germany.

Russo- Japanese War of 1904-1905

It grew out of rival imperial ambitions of the Russian Empire and Japanese Empire over Manchuria and Korea. The major theatres of operations were Southern Manchuria, specifically the area around the Liaodong Peninsula and Mukden, the seas around Korea, Japan, and the Yellow Sea.

Russo- Turkish War

(1877-1878) War that resulted from Russian expansion into the Ottoman Empire, it was ended by the Treaty of Sans Stefano

Schlieffen Plan

Germany's military plan at the outbreak of World War I, according to which German troops would rapidly defeat France and then move east to attack Russia.


Concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves

Sepoy Rebellion

The revolt of Indian soldiers in 1857 against certain practices that violated religious customs; also known as the Sepoy Mutiny.

Three Emperors' League

Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia's emperors formed 1873; the three most conservative powers of Europe. Formed by Otto-von Bismarck to deal with Germany's threat of encirclement. Austria's challenge was internal cultural diversity. Russia's economic prosperity was vulnerable to whoever controlled the Bosporus seaports for trade.

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

treaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in WW1

Treaty of Versailles

Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons.

Triple Alliance

Alliance between Germany, Italy, Austria Hungry

Triple Entante

an alliance between Great Britan, Russia, and France


A brilliant strategist who served as commander of the victorious Reds in the civil war and Lenin's advisor until Lenin's death. He was very persuasive and had charisma; he was very good at propaganda. He fought Stalin for the head job after Lenin's death in 1924, but lost.

White Russians

Opposed the communist revolution in Russia; Became involved in a civil war with the Red Russians who supported the revolution; the White Russians lost the civil war

Zimmerman Note

Written by Arthur Zimmerman, a german foreign secretary. In this note he had secretly proposed a German- Mexican alliance. He tempted Mexico with the ideas of recovering Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. The note was intercepted on March 1, 1917 by the U.S. government. This was a major factor that led us into WWI.

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