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Computer Terminology- Chapter 4
computer notes, chapter 5
Terms in this set (82)
the software you use to do everyday tasks at home and work
the set of programs that helps run the computer and coordinates instructions between application software and the computer's hardware devices.
Operating system (OS)
group of programs that controls how your computer system functions.
computer's hardware, including the processor (Central processing unit or CPU) memory, and storage devices, as well as peripheral devices such as the monitor and printer.
OS is responsible for
the management, scheduling, and coordination of tasts as well as system maintenance.
small program that performs many of the general housekeeping tasks for the computer, such as system maintenance and file compression.
to perform more than one process at a time.
RTOS: real time operating system.
embedded systems. require minimal user interaction. Programs are written specifically for the needs of devices and their functions.
multiuser operating system (network operating system
enables more than one user to access the computer system at one time by efficiently handling and prioritizing requests from multiple users.
the computer on a network that manages network resources such as printers.
multiuser multitask operating system used as a network operating system. Primarily with mainframes. Developed in 1969.
responsible for storing, managing, and simultaneously processing data from all users. IE: UNIX, z/OS, IBM i
used to solve complex problems or to perform massive computations.
modest multitasking capabilities.
system software that includes system programs. Controls the media player or gaming device as well as other programs that come with the system.
the combination of operating system and processor
open source operating system designed for use on personal computers as a network operating system.
an action to which the operating system responds (IE keystroke, mouse click, signal to the printer, from the blu-ray device, etc)
unique signal that tells the operating system that it is in need of immediate attention. (IE: print a document...creates an interrupt)
special numerical code that prioritizes the requests.
when the operating system processes the task assigned a higher priority before processing a task that has been assigned a lower priority.
Where the os puts the request; a temporary storage area in RAM, that waits until the spooler indicates the device is availiable (IE printer)
a program that helps coordinate all print jobs currently being sent to the printer
process of optimizing RAM storage by borrowing hard drive space
condition of excessive paging.
each device attached to your computer comes with a special program called a device driver. this facilitates the communication between the hardware device and the operating system.
Plug and Play (PnP)
software and hardware standard that microsoft created with the Windows 95 OS. Designed to facilitate the installation of new hardware in PC's by including in the OS the drivers these devices need in order to run.
application programming interface (API)
blocks of code the OS includes that application software needs in order to interact with the OS. (PAGE 220)
steps: 1. the basic input/output system (BIOS) is activated by powering on the CPU
2. the BIOS checks that all attached devices are in place (Called a POST)
3. The operating system is loaded into RAM
4. Configuration and customization settings are checked.
BIOS (basic input/output system)
program that manages the exchange of data between the operating system and all the input and output devices attached to the system. Stored on a special read-only memory (ROM) chip on the motherboard.
CMOS (Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor)
special kind of memory that uses almost no power. a little battery provides enough power so that the CMOS contents will not be lost after the computer is turned off. Contains info about the system's memory, types of disk drives, and other essential input and output hardware components.
POST (Power on self test)
consists of a test on the video card and video memory, a BIOS identification process, and a memory etest to ensure that memory chips are working properly.
main files of the operating system.
after system files are loaded into RAM, the kernel is loaded. The kernel is the essential component of the operating system. Responsible for managing the processor and all other components of the computer system. Said to be memory resident.
contains all the different configurations used by the OS and by other applications. Contains the customized settings you put into place, such as mouse speed ad the display settings, as well as intstructions as to which programs should be loaded first.
verificiation of your login name and password.
special diagnostic mode designed for troubleshooting errors. Only essential devices (Mouse, keyboard, monitor) function. System runs int he most basic graphics mode.
a feature in the OS that lets you view and change your properties of all devices attached to your computer.
Last Known Good COnfiguration
windows: added if windows detects a problem in the boot process.
the first interaction you have with the OS and the first image you see on your monitor.
location for deleted files and folders from the C: drive only.
easy to use miniprogram that gives you info at a glance or quick access to frequently used tools: weather info, calendar items, calculators, games, photo albums, and system tools. (STICKY NOTES is not a gadget)
displays open and favorite applications for easy access.
convenient organizational tool that enables you to keep your documents in one place.
provides easy access to disk drives and system and network devices from the start menu
in start menu, this provides access to all programs available in the system.
rectangular boxes that contain programs displayed ont he screen
list of commands that appear on the screen
pictures that represent an object such as a software application or file/folder.
mini-application that enables quick access to frequently used tools and activities (IE stock prices, to-do lists, and games)
have icons which are shortcuts to frequently used tasks
bars that appear at the side or bottom of the screen that control which part of the information is displayed on the screen
ribbon is further organized into task-specific tabs with relevant commands. Using the minimize, maximize, restore and close buttons, you can open, close, and resize windows.
provides organizational structure to tot eh computer's contents.
Hierarchial directory structure
includes files, folders, libraries, and drives.
collection of related pieces of info stored together for easy reference.
collection of files
collection that gather files from different locations and displays them as if they were all saved in a single folder, regardless of where they are actually physically stored.
C drive is referred to as the root directory. All libraries, folders, and files are organized within the root directory.
displays files and folders as icons in the list form
most interactive view. Files and folders are displayed in list form, and the additional file info is displayed in columns alongside the name of the file.
another display of icons and names that are even smaller than in Tiles view.
Small and Medium icons views
views also display files and folders as icons in list form, but the icons are either small or medium sized, respectively
Large and Extra large icon views
shows the contents of folders as small images. X-tra lg shows the folder contents and other icons as even larger images. best to use if your folder contains picture files or for powerpoint presentation.
name you assign to the file when you save it.
extension, file type
follows the file name and a period or dot.
stars with the drive in which the file is located and includes all folders, subfolders, file name and the extension.
backslash character (windows and DOS). Mac: colon UNIX and LInus use the forward slash.
file compression utility
program that takes out redundancies in a file to reduce the file size. Helpful because it makes a large file more compact, making it easier and faster to send over the internet, upload to a web page, or save on a disc.
windows utility that cleans or removes unnecessary files from your hard drive.
regroups related pieces of files on the hard drive, allowing the OS to work more efficiently.
(FAT) file allocation table
index of all setor numbers in a table.
Task manager utility
use to check on the program or to exit the nonresponsive program.
lets you roll your system settings back to a specific date whe everything was working properly
System restore point
snapshot of your entire system's settings, made every week and prior to certain events, such as installing or updating software.
Backup and Restore utility
create a duplicate copy of all data on your hard drive and copy it to another storage device, such as a DVD or external hard drive. protects your data in the event your hard drive fails or files are accidentally erased.
Task Scheduler Utility
allows you to schedule tasks to run automatically at pre-determined times with no additional action necessary on your part.
allows you to select a color scheme setting in which you can control the contrast between text and background
utility that creates a seperate window that displays a magnified portion of the screen
a very basic speech program that reads what is on the screen.
displays a keyboard on the screen.
Windos speech recognition
allows you to dictate text and control your computer by voice.
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