Terms in this set (467)

Perceived control - the belief that we can influence our environment in ways that determine whether we experience positive or negative outcomes. Perceived control is associated with good physical and mental health. Langer and Rodin: introduced perceived control for elderly residents in an assisted living setting. Some patients were reminded of their personal responsibility for their health and welfare, given choices about activities and accommodations, and given a small house plant to care for. Comparison patients were reminded of the staff's responsibility for their health and welfare, given no choices about activities and accommodations, and were not given a plant to care for. Residents showed improvement in the experimental group on measures of alertness, active participation, and subjective sense of well-being. In a follow-up study, nurses' ratings of health had increased and mortality had decreased experimental participants.

Learned helplessness - prolonged experience with an uncontrollable event leads to passive behavior in response to subsequent controllable threats. Seligman: Found that dogs exposed to painful electric shocks became passive and gave up trying to escape - even in new situations when escape was possible.

Self-efficacy - confidence in one's own ability to carry out specific actions that produce desired outcomes. High self-efficacy increases the likelihood that a person will engage in healthier behaviors. It increase peoples motivation to achieve the goal, which causes them to persevere and expend more effort. The body is better able to meet the demands of it. Blittner: participants answered ad for a 14-week smoking cessation program. Some were told they were chosen becaue of their strong willpower and ability to control and conquer desires or some were told they were selected at random. DV was # of participants who stopped smoking after the program was complete.