APHG answer key

A compilation of information from within the sphere of Human Geography: People, Place and Culture: 10th Edition | Although overwhelming, I highly recommend analyzing bits and pieces of this Quizlet, rather than attempting to comprehend all the information at once. The latter would be nearly impossibile | Organized by chapter
STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Prepare yourself....
(May the Force be with you)
Chapter 1
Introduction to Human Geography
Vocab
---
Absolute location
The position or place of a certain item on the surface of the Earth that is express in degrees, minutes... of latitude and longitude.
Accessibility
The degree of ease with which it is possible to reach a certain location from other locations.
Activity spaces
The space within which daily activity occurs.
Cartography
The art and science of making maps; including data compilation, layout and design.
Connectivity
The degree of direct linkage between one particular location and other locations in a transport network.
Cultural landscape
The visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape. The layers of buildings, forms and artifacts sequentially imprinted on the landscape by the activities of various human occupants.
Distances
Measurement of the physical space between two places
Epidemic
Regional outbreak of a disease
Fieldwork
The study of geographic phenomena by visiting places and observing how people interact with and thereby change those places.
Five Themes
Developed by the Geography Educational National Implementation Project; the themes are location, human environment interaction, region, place and movement
Geocaching
A hunt for a cache, the GPS coordinates which are placed on the internet by other geocachers.
Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
A collection of computer hardware and software that permits spatial data to be collected, recorded, stored, retrieved, manipulated, analyzed and displayed to the user.
Global positioning system (GPS)
Satellite based system for determining the absolute location of places or geographic features.
Globalization
The expansion of economic, political and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact.
Human Environmental Interaction
Reciprocal relationship between humans and environment.
Human Geography
One of the two major division of geography; the spatial analysis of human population, its cultures, activities and landscapes.
Landscape
The overall appearance of an area; usually comprised of a combination of natural and human influences.
Location Theory
A logical attempt to explain the locational pattern of an economic activity and the manner in which its producing areas are interrelated.
Location
One of the themes of geography; the geographical situation of people and things.
Medical Geography
The study of health & disease within a geographic context and from a geographical perspective. Including sources, diffusion routes & distributions of disease.
Mental maps
Image or picture of the way space is organized as determined by a individual's perception, impression and knowledge of that space.
Movement
One of the themes of geography; the mobility of people, goods and ideas across the surface of the planet.
Pandemic
An outbreak of a disease that spreads worldwide.
Pattern
The design of a spatial distribution (ex. scattered or concentrated).
Perceptions of places
Belief or understanding about a place developed through books, movies, stories or pictures.
Physical Geography
One of the two major divisions of systematic geography the spatial analysis of the structure, processes and location of the Earth's natural phenomena such as climate, soil, plants...
Place
One of the themes of geography; Uniqueness of a location
Reference maps
Maps that show the absolute location of places and geographic features determined by a frame of reference (typically latitude and longitude).
Relative location
The regional position or situation of a place relative to the position of other places. Distance, accessibility and connectivity affect it.
Remote sensing
A method of collecting data or information through the use of instruments (ex. satellites) that are physically distance from the area or object of study.
Rescale
Involvement of players at other scales to generate support for a position or an initial (ex. use of the internet to generate interest on a national or global scale for a local issue).
Sense of place
State of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occurred in that place or by labeling a place with a certain character.
Sequent occupance
The notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place.
Spatial Distribution
Physical location of geographic phenomena across space.
Spatial Perspective
Observing variations in geographic phenomena across space.
Spatial
Pertaining to space on the Earth's surface.
Thematic maps
Maps that tell stories, typically showing the degree of some attribute or the movement of a geographic phenomenon.
MC - Study Guide
---
The vast majority of the 1 billion malnourished people on Earth are
women and children
Images from a satellite or aerial photos from a plane are both examples of
geographic information systems
A region in which the people share one or more cultural traits is a
formal region
A combination of cultural traits is a
cultural complex
Hip-hop culture has spread from city to city worldwide in a process of __________ diffusion.
contagious
Latitude and longitude will give you the ____________ location of a place.
absolute
All geographers, human or physical, are interested in the _____________ of a phenomenon.
spatial distribution
A set of processes that are increasing interactions and interdependence without regard to country borders is
globalization
Which of the following is NOT given as a reason contributing to poverty and malnutrition in Kenya?
a globalized economy that thrive on foreign income
"From Manheim Road, go west on North Avenue till you get to 5th Avenue, then north about 3/4 of a mile; it's right next to the water tower." This is an example of
absolute location
Different Native American populations in the Southwest evolved different forms of economy, some becoming pastoralists, other sedentary farmers, other hunter-gatherers. This can be explained by which geographic concept?
environmental determinism
Why are you not likely to find an all-beef Big Mac at the McDonalds restaurants in India?
most of the people are Hindus who generally do not eat beef
MC - Website
---
Human geographers study
how people make places; how people organize space and society; how people make sense of others and themselves in our localities, regions, and the world; people and places
_____________ is a set of processes that are increasing interactions, deepening relationships, and accelerating interdependence across national boundaries.
Globalization
Which question below is not a geographic question?
When was cholera discovered?
Location, human-environment interaction, region, place, and movement are
key concepts of geographic study
___________ show locations of places and geographic features, while _____________ tell stories
reference maps, thematic maps
Geographers might use Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
to map layers showing voters, their party registration, their race, and their income; to map grassland wildfires in South Dakota; to map earthquake damage in Chile; to study the diffusion of dengue in Hawaii
In geography, scale has two meanings:
the distance on a map compared to distance on Earth, and the spatial extent of something
Geographers often divide the world into:
regions for analysis: formal regions, functional regions, and perceptual regions
Muhammad founded Islam in the 500s C.E. in and around the cities of Mecca and Medina. This statement
identifies a cultural hearth
Aristotle described northern European people as "full of spirit... but incapable of ruling others," and he characterized Asian people as "intelligent and inventive... but always in a state of subjection and slavery." Aristotle attributed these traits to the respective climates of the regions. This is an example of
environmental determinisn
Human geographers
seek to make sense of the spatial organization of humanity and human institutions on Earth's surface; have titles such as location analyst, urban planner, diplomat, area specialist, environmental consultant; study politics, economics, population, and urban areas; study cultural traits such as religion, language, and ethnicity
Study Guide Guided WS
---
Much of Kenya's income comes from ________ and _________ production.
Coffee, tea
It is estimated that even today, ______ of the world's population is malnourished.
1/7th
The vast majority of the ___ ______ malnourished people on Earth are women and ________, who have little ________ and even less ____________.
1 billion, children, money, power
Human geographers study _______ and places. The field of _______ _________ focuses on how people make places, how we organize space and society, how we interact with each other in places and across space, and how we make sense of others and ourselves in our localities, regions, and the world.
people, human geography
Advances in communication and ________ ________ are making places and people more ___________.
transportation technologies, connected
The set of processes that are increasing interactions, heaghtening interdependence, and deepening relationships is called _____________.
globalization
While human geography is the study of the spatial and material characteristics of human places and people found on the Earth's surface, ________ ________ asks similar questions about the natural environment. Mikesell once gave a shorthand definition of geography as the "______ of _______."
physical geography, "why of where"
Geographers interest in the arrangement of places and phenomena, including its layout is known as the ______ perspective.
spatial
Cholera is an example of a _________, or worldwide outbreak of a disease. __________ found the source of cholera in London's water pumps.
pandemic, Dr. John Snow
While cholera has not been completely defeated, people now know that cholera can be contacted by eating food contaminated _________.
with cholera bacteria
An _________ disease is a regional outbreak of a disease.
epidemic
The five themes of geography are: ______________________________.
Location, Place, Human-Environmental Interaction, Movement, Region
Studying the impact of the drainage of part of the Florida Everglades would focus on the theme of ________ ________ _________.
H-E-I
Infusing a place with meaning and emotion gives it a ________ of ________.
sense of place
Our perception of place is influenced by ___________________. In a student survey, responses indicated that there was a strong bias for their _______ ________.
our knowledge of that place, home region
The degree of linkage between locations in a network is called ____________.
connectivity
________ ________ refers to the imprints of occupants, whose impacts are _______ one on top of the other, each layer having some impacts on the next.
Sequent occupance, layered
The __________ __________ is a term coined by Carl Sauer and refers to the visible imprint of human activity on the landscape.
cultural landscape
Map making is known as ___________. Absolute location involves using both _________ and __________ to know the exact spot of a place.
cartography, latitude and longitude
________ _________ describes the location of a place in relation to other human and physical features.
relative location
________ allows individuals to locate places on the Earth. It has also created a relatively new hobby called ____________.
GPS, geocaching
The opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway changed Chicago's _______ ________.
relative location
A map that we carry in our mind is called a _______ _______. Places we routinely tracel in our day are known as our _________ _________.
mental map, activity spaces
When geographers monitor the Earth from a distance, it is called ________ ________.
remote sensing
_______ involves maps that have layers that can be added or subtracted to analyze data.
Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
Geographers study patterns at a variety of scales: __________, __________, ________, and __________.
local, regional, national, and global
The concern of geography with space puts _______ at the center of its agenda.
scale
A ________ region is marked by visible uniformity or a shared trait. A _________ region involves interactions such as commuting, while a __________ __________ is mainly in people's minds.
formal, functional, perceptual region
________ ________ tackled defining and delimiting perceptual regions in the United States and Canada by analyzing telephone directories.
Wilbur Zelinsky
The _________ was the region analyzed that was unlike any of the others.
South
One single attribute of a culture is called a _________ _________. Several aspects of culture combined are called _________ _________.
culture trait, culture complex
An area where a culture began is known as a _______ _______. The spreading of culture is known as ________ _________.
Cultural hearth, cultural diffusion
The idea that innovations are less accepted the longer it takes to reach its adopters is known as _______ _______.
time-distance decay
Not all cultural traits or innovations diffuse. Some cultures prohibit the consumption of _________ beverages or certain kinds of ________ and other foods. Prescriptions cultures makes about behavior act as _______ _______ and can pose powerful obstacles to the spread of ideas or innovations.
alcoholic, meat, cultural barriers
The two main types of diffusion are __________ and _____________.
Expansion and relocation
Expansion diffusion involves three different types of diffusion: ____________, ___________, and ____________.
contagious, hierarchical, and stimulus
A type of diffusion where nearly all of the people nearby are affected is _____________.
contagious
_____________ diffusion occurs when there is a certain order to who gets what is diffused first, depending on what is diffused (fax machines to offices, Crocs).
Hierarchical
A third form of expansion diffusion is _________ ________. The ________ ________ in India is an example of this type of diffusion.
stimulus diffusion, introduction of the hamburger
_________ diffusion involves an individual moving and carrying the idea with migrants.
Relocation
Huntington and Cushing suggest ________ is the critical factor in how humans behave. __________ _________ holds that human behavior is affected by the environment, while __________ argues that nature doesn't control decisions but limits the range of choices.
climate, Environmental determinism, possibilism
__________ __________ is concerned with the study of human cultures and their ability to adapt and exist within a particular physical environment. The fundamental doctrine point is that human societies are diverse and the __________ will is too powerful to be __________ by _________.
Cultural ecology, human, determined by the environment
Chapter 2
Population
Study Guide WS
---
________ now has the longest metro system on Earth - a system capable of transporting ___ _________ people a day.
China, 5 million
China's biggest urban challenge may be ______ as it already has little to spare. ____% of water use today in China is for _______, while demand from urban centers in on the ________.
water, 70%, for agriculture, rise
Demography is the study of _________. Demographers use ________ ________ to measure population in relation to land area.
population, population density
___________ ___________ density is the total population of people per unit of land, while ________ __________ density if the number of people per unit of arable land. The problem with using ______ ______ is that it does not take into consideration internal clustering in a country. 98% of Egyptians live on just __% of the land.
arithmetic population density, physiologic population density, arithmetic population density, 3%
_______ maps are commonly used to show population distributions.
Dot
The three main clusters of population are __________, _________, __________ and a minor concentration of __________________. The three main clusters are all found on the landmass of __________.
East Asia, South Asia, Europe, North America, Eurasia
A _______________ refers to the large cluster of cities close together.
Megalopolis
In terms of the census, the concern is that people in _______ _______ are undercounted.
disadvantaged groups
__________ believed that the world did not have enough food because he believed food grew _________ while population grew ___________.
Paul Ehrilch, linearly, exponentially
In general, countries with low population growth are located in _______ countries.
developed
Countries with high population growth are located in _______________.
underdeveloped regions
Demographers use ______ _______ _______ to measure whether a population can replace its deaths with births. In order to reach replacement levels, this number needs to be _________ to keep a stable population. Almost everywhere on Earth, the number is _________.
Total Fertility Rate, 2.1, above replacement level (this is disputed, as the text says on pg. 49 that "more than 60 countries, containing 45% of the world's population, had fallen below replacement level, while on the map [Figure 2.8] most of the planet's landmass is filled with countries whose TFR is above replacement level)
___________ __________ is used to compare the population growth rate. In recent years, it has taken ________ time for this to occur.
doubling time, less
___________ __________ __________ refers to the number of deaths per thousand. _________ _________ ________ refers to the number of births per thousand.
Crude death rate, crude birth rate
The different between births and deaths is referred to as the rate of _________ __________.
natural increase
The demographic transition model has low growth occuring in stage 1 because of ________ births and deaths. Stage 2 shows a decrease in the _______ rate, stage 3 has a population _______. Stage 4 has ________ growth as both birth and death rates are relatively ________, while stage 5 marks a population _________, with the ________ rate falling below the ________ rate.
high, death, increase, decreased, equal, decline, birth, death
The number of men and women along with their ages make up the ________ ________ of a country. Geographers use ________ _________ to represent these traits visually. They are displayed in percentages of each age group in _____ year increments by a __________ bar with _______ on the left and _______ on the right.
population composition, population pyramids, 5, horizontal, males, females
A population pyramid can instantly convey the _________ _________ in a country.
demographic situation
A population pyramid for a less developed country looks ______________ while a population pyramid for a more developed country looks like ______________________.
triangular-shaped, a rectangle
One of the leading measure of the condition of a country's population is the ______ ______ ______. It is recorded as a baby's death during the first ________. Infant and child mortality reflect the overall ________ of a society.
infant mortality rate, year (of life), health
Look at Figure 2.18. In the world, where are infant mortality rates the highest?
Africa (specifically Angola with 176 deaths per 1,000 live births [pg. 62-63])
Within the United States, where are infant mortality rates the highest?
Southeast (specifically, Mississippi)
__________ _________ is an indicator of well-being and is higher in more developed countries. They do not take into account ___________ differences by country. In general, ________ outlive _________. Countries such as _______ have a high life expectancy.
Life expectancy, gener, women outlive men, Japan
Diseases can be grouped into categories. 65% of all diseases are _________, resulting from an invasion of parasites and their multiplication in the body. __________ is an infectious disease. The remained can be divided into ________ or ________ diseases, the maladies of langevity and old age such as _______ disease. _________ or ________ ___________ we can trace to our ancestry. _________ is an example of such a disease.
Infectious, Malaria, chronic or degenerative, genetic or inherited deseases, Hemophilia
There are two types of infectious diseases, __________ and ___________. A vectored disease has a __________ such as the case of malaria with the mosquito.
Vectored and non-vectored, vector
Chronic diseases occur in countries with higher ________ ________. Among them, __________, ________ and _________ are leading diseases in this category.
life expectancies, pneumonia, diarrheal diseases, heart diseases
Low life expectancies in some parts of the world are caused by the ravages of diseases such as _________. Subsaharan Africa's high mortality rate is strongly influenced by ________. __________ is reshaping the population structure of the countries hardest hit by the disease.
AIDs, AIDs, AIDs
Over the past century, many of the world's ________ have instituted policies designed to influence the overall ______ rate or ethnic ratios within a population. ____________ __________ __________ encourage large families. The __________ government offered cash subsidies for women who have 2 or 3 children. Russia's aging population led to a ________ of conception.
governments, growth, expansive population policies, Russian, National Day
In the past, some governments designed __________ __________ __________, favoring certain populations over others. _______ ______ was a drastic example of this policy.
eugenic population policies, Nazi Germany
Today many of the world's governments seek to reduce the rate of natural increase through various forms of ________ _________ _________. China's _________ policy is an example of such a policy.
restrictive population policies, One-Child
MC - Study Guide (Ch. 2)
---
All of the following are components of population growth EXCEPT
emigration
An index that relates a country's population density to its available arable land is known as
physiologic density
The region of the world with the largest population density is
East Asia
According to the text, the world's 2011 population was
7 billion
Which of the following statements is true?
The fastest growing countries are in southern Africa
In what two stages of the demographic transition model does population grow rapidly?
stages 2 & 3
All of the following are directly indicated on a population pyramid EXCEPT
Life expectancy
Which of the following countries has the highest life expectancies in the world?
Japan
Where in the world has the HIV-AIDS epidemic had the greatest impact?
Subsaharan Africa
In countries where cultural traditions restrict educational and professional opportunities for women, and men dominate as a matter of custom, what is the usual impact on population growth rates?
rates of natural increase tend to be high
MC - Textbook Website (Ch. 2)
---
The arithmetic population density figure for Egypt is subject to criticism because
most Egyptians live in the valley and delta of the Nile River
Population data collected by the United States Census Bureau
are used to distribute federal funding to state and city governments; have been criticized for undercounting disadvantaged groups; provide valuable insights about American immigration; can be used to define the boundaries of regional population clusters
Demographic change in a territory is best calculated by
using natural increase, immigration, and emigration rates
Since the 18th century,
the world's population doubling time has dropped dramatically
The infant mortality rate in the United States
varies by region, ethnicity, and social class
The Mother's Index
demonstrates a link between violent conflict and newborn survival
Mosquitoes are to malaria as a kiss to influenza. This analogy illustrates
the difference between a vectored and nonvectored disease
Which of the following statements is false?
AIDS is a vectored disease
Governments affect population change through
expansive population policies; eugenic population policies; restrictive population policies; financial incentives
Life expectancy around the world
is lowest in sub-Saharan Africa
Chapter 3
Migration
Study Guide WS (Ch. 3)
---
Immigrants are sometimes welcomed and sometimes ______ ________. In the 1970s, the U.S. government welcomed ________ immigrants because most were ________ and able to afford _________ to the United States.
turned away, Haitian, educated, travel
In 1980, _________ and _________ immigrants reached south Florida by boat. The U.S. government considered this a humanitarian crisis because of the repressive __________ and they were _________ to the United States.
25,000 Haitian, 125,000 Cuban, governments, admitted
When migrants send money back home to their family, they are called __________. Haitians living in the United States, Canada, and the Caribbean sent over $1 billion in remittances in 2007, equivalent to _____% of Haiti's gross domestic product.
remmitances, 30%
Not all immigrants are undocumented or __________. Of the estimated 31.2 million immigrants, ___________ are legal.
illegal, 20.4 million
In Canada the vast majority of agricultural workers are from __________.
Mexico
_____________ is inherently geographical.
Movement
__________ movement involves shorter periods away from home. _________ involves longer periods away from home.
Cyclic, periodic
_________ movement involves a degree of permance as the mover may never return "home."
Migration
One's daily routine makes up what geographers call _________ _________ and are journeys that start and end at our home.
activity spaces
________________ is an example of cyclic movement. In Washington, D.C., workers may travel up to ____ miles a day each way.
Commuting, 100
A type of cyclic movement found in parts of Africa and Asia where movement takes place along the same long-familiar routes is known as _______________.
nomadism
____________ movement involves longer periods away from home and activities such as transhumance and ________ service that involves as many as 10 million citizens.
Periodic, military
__________________ __________________ occurs across country borders.
International migration
____________ ____________ involves moving within a country. Between 1900 and 1970, African Americans fled from the _______ to the ________. Most migration streams in the United States have flocked to the __________ and ________ ________.
Internal migration, South, North, Sunbelt, Far West
In Peru, most migrants moved to __________.
Lima
Migration can be the result of voluntary action, a ___________ decision to move from one place to the next. It can also be the result of _______ _______, or forced movement.
conscious, forced migration
_________ _________ occurs when a migrant weighs options and choices and involves a migrant making the decision to move.
Voluntary migration
The Irish migration to North America in the mid-1800s is an example of both ________ and _______ migration.
Forced, voluntary
The _______ _______ _______ is the largest example of forced migration. During the 1930s in Germany,the _______ were responsible for significant forced migration of the Jews.
Atlantic Slave Trade, Nazis
________ __________ proposed the laws of migration. According to the laws of migration, every migration generates a return or _____________. The majority of migrants move a ________ distance. Urban residents are ______ _________ than rural peoples. Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose _________ ____________. _____________ are less likely to make international moves.
Ernst Ravenstein, countermigration, short, less migratory, big-city destinations, families
The _________ ________ states that the interaction of places is related to the size and _______.
Gravity model, distance
___________ ___________ are the circumstances that effectively attract the migrant to certain locales from other places.
Pull factors
The idea of ________ ________ says that as distance increases, interaction decreases.
distance decay
When migrants move in a series of stages - from village to town to city - it is called _______ _______.
step migration
When hypothetically driving to Florida but finding something else along the way instead, you captured by an ___________ ___________.
intervening opportunity
Gender, ethnicity, race, and ___________ are all factors in the decision to ____________.
money, migrate
Throughout history opressive regimes have _________ migration streams. Migrants fles _________ after thousands of communists took control of the country. More than 125,000 __________ were expelled during the communist rule in 1980.
engendered, Cuba, cubans
Armed conflict drove as many as 3 million people from the __________ __________ to western Europe.
former Yugoslavia
A major example of migration induced by environmental conditions was the movement of thousands from ____________ to the New World because of the _________ _________.
Ireland, potato blight
People who fear that their _________ and _________ might not survive will also migrate to safer places. An example of this is when the British partitioned _________ for Hindus and ________ for Muslims.
culture, traditions, India, Pakistan
Advances in communication techonology strengthen the role of ________ ________ as push or pull factors.
kinship links
When a migrant uses media (phone, e-mail, etc.) to communicate and encourage friends and family to move to where the migrant is located it is known as ___________. A result of this is _________ ___________ or swells of migration from one origin to the same destination.
chain migration, immigration waves
Migration depends on various ________ and ________ factors, ranging from persecution to civil war.
push, pull
__________ __________ rarely occured before 1500. In the early 1800s, European __________ played a role in mapping the world. ____________ resulted, the physical process whereby the colonizer takes over another place, putting its _________ _________ in charge.
global-scale migration, explorers, Colonization, own government
The major routes of migration before 1500 were as follows: Western Europe to _____________________, Southern Europe to ______________________, Eastern Europe to ____________________, South Africa to _______________________, East Asia to __________________, Africa to ____________________________ and Britain and Ireland to _______________.
North America, South/Central America, Eastern Africa, Africa and Australia
Islands of development are often __________ ___________ because of trade purposes.
port cities
In the 1800s and early 1900s, millions of _______ labors fled and went to ___________ as contract laborers.
Chinese, Southeast Asia
The center of U.S. population has moved further _________________ since 1790-2000. In 1850, the center was ___________________ (Figure 3.16).
West, West Virginia
During the communist period, the Soviet government employed a policy of _______________, which sought to ___________ all of the people in the Soviet territory into Russian culture. The main idea behind this was to get the Russians to migrate out of ___________ and _________________.
Russification, assimilate, Moscow, St. Petersburg
After ____________ many countries in western Europe found themselves in need of _____________. Many came from outside areas such as _______________. Western European governments called the labor migrants ___________ ___________.
WWII, workers, North Africa and Turkey, guest worers
A ______________ is a person with a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, or membership of a particular social group or political opinion. The right to protection in the first country in which the refugee arrives and possible assistance is known as ___________. In the 1990s hostilities broke out between the __________ and the ___________ that led to genocide.
refugee, asylum, Tutsi, Hutu
Today the regions of _________ and __________ generate more than half of the refugees worldwide. The ______________ invasion of Afghanistan led to many refugees leaving the country. The Taliban coming to power led to a migration of refugees to neighboring ____________. During the last decade of the twentieth century and the first years of the twenty-first, several of the world's largest refugee crises occured in ___________ ____________.
North Africa, Southwest Asia, Taliban, Pakistan, Southwest Asia
_____________ is defined by acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethical, racial, or religious group. The violence in Darfur eventually led to a ___________ in 2011 for separation between the north and south.
Genocide, referendum
The collapse of _________ created the greatest refugee crisis in Europe. In the Western Hemisphere, only __________ has a serious internally displaced person problem.
Yugoslavia, Colombia
Typically, the obstacles placed in the way of potential immigrants are __________, not physical.
legal
The first immigration law in the United States ___________ __________ ___________ to prevent ________ from migrating to California.
Oriental Exclusion Acts, Chinense
_________ place limits on immigration, restricting Japanese, and immigration from southern and eastern Europe. Many countries practice ___________ _________, in which individuals with certain backgrounds are barred from entering.
Quotas, selective immigration
MC - Study Guide (Ch. 3)
---
What is the name for the seasonal migration of farmers and their cattle up and down the mountain slopes of Switzerland?
transhumance
In mathematical terms, it is the multiplication of populations of two places divided by the distance between them.
gravity model
What minority group in SE Asia accounts for 14% of the population in Thailand, 32% in Malaysia, and 76% in Singapore?
Chinese
Which of the following is an example of chain migration?
in a rural town in Jalisco, Mexico, one person manages to migrate legally to the United States and settles in Elgin, Illinois. He finds a job and prospers, and writes home of his success. Ten years later there is a community of 350 people from Jalisco living in Elgin.
Which of the following was NOT given as a reason for the disparity between the UN's calculation of global refugees and the numbers given by other organizations?
the UN inflates the numbers, thus requiring a bigger budget to provide aid to refugees
Which of the following is a consequence of the large number of men who died in both world wars?
Germany, in particular, brought in guest workers, mainly from Turkey.
What is one of the consequences of the fences the United States builds along the border with Mexico, especially those separating cities on both sides of the border?
it forces illegal immigrants to cross in hostile terrain, such as deserts, leading to more people dying
The practice of barring certain individuals (those with criminal records, poor health, subversive activities) from coming into the country is known as
selective immigration
Which of the following crops is most associated with the forced migration of African slaves?
cotton
Which of these sets of states had an increase of immigration during both the 1990-2000 and 2000-2004 periods?
Nebraska - Virginia - New Mexico - California
Chapter 4
Local Culture, Popular Culture, and Cultural Landscapes
Study Guide WS (Ch. 4)
---
The Tata family are members of the ___________ ethnic group and religion. They are followers of the _______ religion and came to India from __________ between the eighth and tenth centuries.
Parsi, Parsi, Persia
Despite the fact that the Parsi make up only 0.00046% of the population, they control a _________ share of the India economy.
significant
A local culture such as the Parsi is maintained through the preservation of _________ and practices. The Parsi religion only recognizes members of children born to ________ Parsi parents.
culture traits, two
The Parsi have high literacy rates and many women choose not to _______ or have _______ late, reducing the fertility rate.
marry, children
A __________ is a group of belief systems, norms and values practiced by a people. Although the definition is simple, the concept of culture is actually quite __________.
culture, complex
The idea that _________ _________ is small, incorporates a homogeneous population, is typically rural, and is cohesive in cultural traits.
folk culture
__________ __________ is a limiting concept because it requires the creation of a list of characteristics and search for cultures that meet that list. The chapter chooses the concept of ________ _________ over folk culture. It consists of a group of ________ in a particular place who see themselves as a communit and share experiences and customs.
folk culture, local culture, people
__________ ___________ includes things a group fo people construct, such as art, houses, clothing, sports, dance and foods.
Material landscape
________ _________ includes the beliefs, practices, aesthetics, and values of a group of people. What members of a local culture produce in their material culture reflects the ________ and ________ of their nonmaterial culture.
Non-material culture, beliefs, values
Fashin is an example of _________ diffusion. The order of the fashion worls begins with the runways of major fashion cities, including London, ________, Paris and New York. These cities act as _________, or points of origin.
contagious, Milan, hearths
In the 1800s into the 1900s, the U.S. government had a policy of _____________. This attempted to make American Indians into "_______________________."
assimilation, "Americans"
Local cultures are sustained through _________, a practice that a group of people routinely follow. To sustain a local culture, people must maintain their __________.
customs, customs
A local culture can also work to avoid __________ ________, the process by which other cultures adopt customs and knowledge and use them for their own _________.
cultural appropriation, benefit
The Hutterites differ from the Amish in that they _____________________. They speak ________ _________. The Hutterites live in the following states and Canadian provinces: __________________________.
accept technology, archiac German, Alberta, North Dakota, South Dakota... (Figure 4.5 [pg. 118])
The Makah American Indians wanted to hunt _______. They wanted to hunt them with _________ but were instead forced to use ___________________________.
grey whales, harpoons, 50-cal. rifles
"Little Sweden" in Lindsborg, Kansas, is an example of __________, or seeking out the regional culture reinvigorating it in response to the uncertainty in the modern world.
neolocalism
Some local cultures are able to practice their customs in large cities by contructing __________ __________. Runners of the New York City marathon can see them in Brooklyn, as they pass through Mexican neighborhoods as well as ________ _________ neighborhoods.
ethnic neighborhoods, Hasidic Jewish
_____________ involves taking an object that was not previously sold and making it something that is sold on the world market.
Commodification
When this occurs, it can lead to the development of an image of ______________, which amounts to cultural stereotyping. The city of __________, Missouri, capitalizes on a local culture in the Ozarks.
authenticity, Branson
The Irish Beer Pub is part of the _________ brand of Dublin, Ireland. The company has built over 400 pubs in ___________ countries around the world.
Guiness Brewing Company, 48
During the 20th century, the pace of diffuion has ____________ to months, weeks, days and in some cases even __________. At the same time, the ________ extent of diffusion has ____________.
shrank, hours, spatial, expanded
Transportation and communication have altered _________ __________. Time-space compression explains how quickly innovations diffuse and refers to ow interlinked two places are through __________ and _________ ____________.
distance decay, transportation, communication technologies
The Dave Matthews Band is an example of _________ diffusion as they started in ___________ ___________.
hierarchical, Charlottesville, Virginia
____________ happens when people start to produce an aspect of popular culture for themselves and make it their own. This is visible through ________ ________ in countries such as France.
retteritorialization, pop music
While sports such as ________, _________ and __________ are historically popular in the United States, ___________ ___________ such as skating, snowboarding, and ultimate fighting are gaining appeal.
football, baseball, basketball, extreme sports
Popular media from the __________ and __________ diffuse quickly. Most video games are created in _____________.
US, UK, Japan
______________ describes the loss of uniquenes of place in the cultural landscape as places look more alike. Places can begin to blend together and have similar ________ styles, can leave a distinctive landscape stamp on faraway places, and idealized ___________ ____________ are often borrowed. ____________ in places such as Chicago, Singapore, and Johannesburg are examples of this concept.
placelessness, landscape, landscape images, Skyscrapers
Reading signs is an easy way to see cultural landscape convergence. Seeing signs for business in Rome such as ___________ are an example. The strip in ____________ has various structures to evoke different parts of the planet.
Pizza Hut, Law Vegas
The idea that what happens at one scale is not independent of what happens at other scales is known as the ______________ ______________. When people at a local scale alter regional, national, or global processes, it is called _______________.
global-local continuum, glocalization
Founders and early followers of the Church of Jesus Christ of ________________ Saints created the ___________ landscape of the American West. They migrated to the West because of ___________ to freely practice their ____________. They eventually migrated to present-day __________.
Latter-Day, Mormon, persecution, religion, Utah
MC - Study Guide (Ch. 4)
---
How do the Hutterites differ from the Amish?
Hutterites readily accept techonologies that help their agricultural work
Which of the following statements about St. Patrick's Day is true?
it transcends ethnicity to be celebrated as part of popular culture
What are the two goals of local cultures?
to keep other cultures out and keep their own culture in
What is the greatest challenge to urban local cultures?
migration of "others" into their neighborhoods
The rapid diffusion of innovations through modern techonology that quickly links distant locations is known as
time-space compression
The common American house type known as the "ranch" style
is a variation of the New England style
What was the policy by which the U.S. government tried to make Native Americans more like Americans of European (white) descent?
assimilation
Distance decay ensures that
the authenticity of a cultural trait decreases as it diffuses globally
Kids in Katmandu, Nepal, wear the styles and listen to the music of Hip Hop culture, but with Nepalese accents. This type of diffusion is called
reterritorialization
Which of the following is an example of cultural appropriation?
Japan's adoption of Western technology in the late 1800s, but not the West's cultural values
Chapter 5
Identity: Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Sexuality
Study Guide WS (Ch. 5)
---
The women in Bali work ________ a day turning, stacking, and restacking bricks for ___________ an hour. More than a century ago, bricks were made this way in the ___________.
10 hours, 45 cents, United States
In Bali, most brick-makers are _________ and _________. In the United States, the majority are ___________ and are aided by machines.
women, boys, men
Gender is defined as a culture's ___________ about the differences between ________ and ________.
assumptions, men, women
Societies create boxes in which we put people and expect them to ________. These create a __________ and assumptions we make about what is expected about women, men, and members of certain races or __________ groups, and people with various sexual preferences.
live, sense of stereotypes, ethnic
In creating these boxes, society can assign an entire __________ or tasks to members of certain categories.
profession
______________ is how we make sense of ourselves. It is constructed through our own __________, emotions, connections and rejections.
Identity, experiences
One of the most powerful ways to construct an identity is by ____________ ____________ other people. This invovles definining the "__________," and then we define __________ in opposing terms.
idetifying against, "Other," ourselves
___________ is a combination of physical attributes such as skin color.
Race
Socioeconomic differences can fuel a sense of superiority attached to race known as ___________.
racism
Differences in skin color, eye color, and hair color likely result from a long history of ____________ to different environments.
adaptation
People have different skin colors because of different amounts of _____________. Most people are deficient in ______________ _____ because they don't get enought sunlight. Unlike ethnicity, race is often an identity that is ____________.
melanin, vitamin D, assigned
Hispanis, then, is not a ________ but is better defined as an ___________.
race, ethnicity
____________ ___________ is when people of different groups live separate from one another.
Residential segregation
The 2002 Census Bureau report found that overall residential segregation by race/ethnicity is on the ____________.
decline
____________ is the most racially segregated city in the United States. Most African Americans in that city are concentrated in the _____________.
Milwaukee (Wisconsin), middle
The way we make sense of ourselves in an increasingly ___________ world is complex. We have different identities at different __________.
globalized, scales
People's sense of place _______________ over time because places are constantly evolving.
changes
The idea of ____________ as an identity stems from the notion that people are closely bounded, even related, in a certain place over time.
ethnicity
Ethos means "______________" or "_______________" and ethnic identity is cultural.
"peoples" or "nation"
The border between the United States and __________ is often seen as a meeting point between Mexico and Anglo Americans. The ethnic region in the border region is more ___________ than Mexican and Anglo.
Mexican, varied
The town of ____________ is the capital of the state of Baja California.
Mexicali
The ____________ in Mexicali were prominent players in the social and economic life of the city during the 20th century. The town is experiencing a transformation, as the __________ residents have dispersed to the edges of the city and beyond. Relatively _________ live in the city's Chinatown.
Chinese, Chinese, few
Space is defined as _________ relations stretched out, and ___________ as particular articulations of those social relations as they have come together.
social, place
Place designed for women or for men are known as ____________.
gendered
Many geographers who study sexuality are employing _______ ________ in their studies.
queer theory
___________ __________ are assumptions and strutures about who is in control and who has power over others.
Power relationships
Policies created by governments can limit access of certain _________. ____________ __________ laws in the United States once separated "black" spaces from "white" spaces.
groups, Jim Crow
Prior to the 14th Amendment, a black person counted as __________ of a white person. Until 1924, the U.S. government did not recognize the full right of all ___________ __________ to vote, even though the Fifteenth Amendment recognized the right to vote regardless of race in 1870.
3/5, American Indians
Not until 1920 did enough states ratify the _________ Amendment, which recognized the right of all Americans to vote regardless of _________.
19th, sex
Throughout the world, the work of _________ is often undervalued and uncounted. GNI does not count the unpaid labor of ___________ in the household, nor the work done by _________ _________ in LDCs.
women, women, informal laborers
The World's Women 2010 reported _________ variation in agricultural employment for women. In Africa, the ranges were between _________ and _________, while in eastern Asia, the agricultural percentage is _________.
regional, 19-68%, 11%
_______ ________ occur in India and involve a bride's family not paying the groom's family, leading to the death of the bride. The practice is not declining as in 2009, the total jumped to ___________.
Dowry deaths, 8383
The area of southeastern Los Angeles County is today home to one of the largest concentrations of ____________ in Southern California.
Latinos
_________ is Spanish for neighborhood. __________ refers to the jump in Hispanis population in a neighborhood.
barrio, barrioization
MC - Study Guide (Ch. 5)
---
How does "ethnicity" differ from "race?"
ethnicity is something to which we choose to belong; race is assigned
What U.S. city has the greatest number and diversity of immigrants?
New York
State of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion is called
sense of place
Who produces about 70% of the food in rural Subsaharan Africa?
women
Barrioization refers to
neighborhoods, especially in Los Angeles, where the Hispanic population rapidly displaces the original residents
The most residentially segregated large metropolitan area for African Americans is
Milwaukee, WI
In New York, Puerto Ricans took over Jewish neighborhoods in a process geographers call
invasion and succession
What would happen to the world's gross national income if the work women do at home was calculated at market value?
global GNI would grow by about one-third
Which of the following best describes the relations between Indians and Pakistanis in Fairfax County, Virginia?
they coexist without animosity
What is a term used in the discussion of sexual behavior, gender, and society, primarily within the fields of queer theory and gender theory? it is used to describe (and frequently to criticize) the manner in which many social institutions and social policies are seen to reinforce certain beliefs.
heteronormative
MC - Textbook Website
---
People construct their identities through
experiences; emotions, connections; rejections
In Britain the term "black" refers not only to Afro-Caribbeans and Africans, but also to individuals form the Indian Subcontinent. This statement is an example of __________ .
the variety of racial distinctions that are used in places around the world.
Human geographers believe that ___________ .
how people make sense of themselves in an increasing globalized world is complex; people have different identities at different scales; an individual's various identities are nested, one inside of the other; with the appropriate identity revealed at the appropriate scale; identities are fluid
The process of infusing a place with meaning and feeling is what geographers refer to as __________ .
developing a sense of place
__________ is defined as "the social relations stretched out,"and __________ as "particular articulations of those social relations as they have come together, over time, in a particular location."
Space, place
A geographer might be interested in a Gay Pride parade because __________ .
geographers ask where people with shared identity live and gather; geographers ask how people create a space for themselves and what kinds of problems they confront; geographers understand that group identity can have a lasting effect on the cultural landscape; and because geographers understand that gender roles are culturally constructed
Power relationships __________ .
affect cultural landscapes; affect identities directly; depend on the geographical context in which they are situated; reflect the contest over how a place should be seen and what meaning to give it
The study of vulnerability requires thinking geographically because __________ .
not all people and places are affected in the same way by social, political, economic, or environmental change
Chapter 6
Language
In stores throughout ________, __________ you can see the capital city's ___________ all around you.
Belgium, bilingualism
The map (Figure 6.3) shows _________ spoken in the northern region of Flanders and _________ spoken in the southern region of Wallonia.
Flemish, French
Brussels is also the capital of the ________.
bilingual region
With the support of many French people, the French government passed a _______ in 1975 banning the use of ___________ words in advertisements, televisions, radio braodcasts, and official documents. They have also passed laws to stop te use of foreign words in France, with a hefty _______ imposed for violators.
law, English, fine
Language is a set of _________ and __________ used for communication.
sounds, symbols
The language with the most number of speakers is Mandarin _________. Most Internet content is in ___________ (Figure 6.4 [pg. 177]).
Chinese, English
A few U.S. states are bilingual, such as __________.
Hawai'i and New Mexico
The country of Canada is officially ___________, speaking English and ___________. Most of the country's French speakers live in the province of ___________. The majority of people there speak __________ at home.
bilingual, French, Quebec, French
___________ __________ means when two people can understand each other when speaking.
Mutual intelligibility
Technologically advances societies are likely to have a __________ ________, one that is published, widely distributed, and purposefully taught.
Standard language
Variants of a standard language are known as _____________.
dialects
An ____________ is a geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs, such as that among spft-drink names. In Illinois, the majority would ask for a ________, while in Wisconsin they would ask for a ________ (Figure 6.7).
isogloss, pop, Coke
_________ _________ have a shared but fairly distant origin while _________ __________ have a more definite and recent origin.
Language families, subfamilies
There are around ________ language families according to Figure 6.8. The ________ ________ famliy has the widest distribution and claims the largest number of speakers. __________ is the most widely spoken Indo-European language. Hundreds of millions of people speak versions of _________ as a second or third language.
16, Indo-European, English, English
A sound shift is a slight change in a ____________ within a language family. For example, the Latin word for milk, __________, becomes __________ in Italian, _______ in Spanish, and ________ in French.
word, Lacte, latta, leche, lait
___________________ is the ancestor of the Indo-European language.
Proto-Indo-European
_____________ ___________ is used to track sound shifts back in time toward the original language.
Backward reconstruction
_________ is the ancestor of the Proto-Indo-European language.
Nostratic
__________ __________ occurs when new languages form because of a lack of interaction among speakers. ________ ________ are when consistent interaction evolves into the collapsing of languages.
Language divergence, language convergence
Linguists theorize that the hearth of the Proto-Indo-European language was somewhere in the vicinity of the _______ _______ or east-central Europe.
Black Sea
The conquest theory holds that speakers of the Indo-European language spread from __________ to ___________ on horseback, overpowering earlier inhabitants and diffusing.
East to West
Despite the genetic gradient identified in Europe, some linguistic geographers continue to favor the ________ ________, which holds that the Indo-European languages that arose from Proto-Indo-European were first carried eastward into _________ Asia, next around the __________ Sea, and then across the Russian-Ukranian plains and on into the _________.
dispersal hypothesis, Southwest, Caspian, Balkans
_________ people brought Indo-European tongues into Europe. They fell victim to __________ migrations and empire building.
Celtic, subsequent
Spanish, French, and Italian are _________ languages.
Romance
English, German, Banish, Norwegian, and Swedish are _________ languages.
Germanic
Russian, Polish, and Ukraine are __________ languages.
Slavic
In Subsahran Africa, the ________ (language) family dominates.
Niger-Congo
_________ is the official language of Nigeria.
English (see pg. 390-391 for in-depth details)
In the late Middle Ages, the invention of the __________ __________ and the rise of nation-states helped spread literacy and stabilize languages.
printing press
A ___________ ___________ is a language used among speakers of different languages for the purpose of trade and commerce. It can be a _________ language or a mixture of _____ or more.
lingua franca, single, two
When people speaking two or more languages are in contect and they combine parts of their languages in a simplified structure and vocabulary, we call it a ________ language.
pidgin
___________ became a lingua franca during the expansion of ___________, as did Engligh during the colonial era. _________ is the lingua franca of East Africa.
Frankish, France, Swahili
A _________ __________ is a pidgin language that has developed a more complew structure and vocabulary and has become the native language of a group of people.
Creole language
__________ countries are those countries where everyone virtually speaks the same language. Countries in which more than one language is in use are called ____________ ___________.
Monolingual, multilingual states
Countries with linguistic fragmentation often adopt an __________ __________.
official language
The three main language families of India: ___________, ____________, ____________.
Indo-European, Dravidian, Sino-Tibetan
Each _________ has a unique location and constritutes a reflection of human activities, ideas, and tangible, durable creations.
place
____________ refer to place names.
Toponyms
Most Brazilian toponyms are _____________, reflecting colonization.
Portugese
_________ prompts name changes. In 1997, the revolutionary leader Laurent Kabila ousted Mobotu and established his regime in the capital, ___________. He also renamed the country ____________.
Independence, Kinshasha, Zaire
Most cities with the street name Martin Luther King are located in the ____________.
South
The practice of _________ toponyms is growing, especially in areas largely within the fold of popular culture. Stadiums such as ___________ are examples of this phenomenon.
commodifying, FedEx Field
MC - Study Guide (Ch. 6)
---
The predominant languages spoken on Madagascar are not of an African language family but belong to a(n)
Austronesian
Two Russian scholars have established the core of what they believe is the pre-Proto-Indo-European language named
Nostratic
A geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs is called a/an
isogloss
Hawaii and Louisiana are states that have
official bilingual policies
Which of the following European countries has a rather sharp division between Flemish speakers in the north and Walloon speakers in the south?
Belgium
The Indo-European language family prevails on the map of Europe. Which country listed below has a language that is not in the Indo-European family?
Hungary
Bantu migrations marginalized this once widespread African language family that now is found only in dry regions of southwestern Africa.
Khoisan family
In an attempt to deal with linguistic as well as cultural diversity, many former African colonies have taken as their official language
the language of their former colonial power
When African colonies became independent countries, one of the first acts of many of the new governments was to
change the names of places that had been named after colonial figures
In technically advanced societies there is likely to be
a standard language
According to the text, dialects are usually marked by differences in all of the following EXCEPT
diction
Convergence processes yielding a synthesis of several languages produce a pidgin language. When this language becomes the first language of a population it is referred to as a
Creole language
MC - Textbook Website (Ch. 6)
---
Geographers
study the distribution of languages; study how languages diffuse; study how languages change and even become extinct; study how language contributes to making places unique
In the United States, the common name for a soft drink varies by region. This is an example of
a dialect
Indo-European, Amerindian, and other indigenous languages are found in __________ .
North and South America
The notions of William Jones and the ideas of Jakob Grimm __________ .
produced the first major linguistic hypothesis, proposing the existence of an ancestral language called Proto-Indo-European.
If peoples with different languages have consistent spatial interaction, __________ can take place.
language convergence
The fact that Celtic languages are Europe's oldest supports the idea that
new languages arrived from the east
Studying language subfamilies helps geographers understand
migration and settlement patterns.
Globalization is __________ the world's linguistic heritage.
shrinking
Predominantly monolingual states include: __________ .
Denmark
Geographers study __________ as clues to the social processes going on in a particular area.
toponyms
__________ is to descriptive toponyms as __________ is to commendatory toponyms.
Llanfairpwllgwyngyllgogerychwyrndrobwllllantysiliogogogoch, Hell's Canyon
The geographical boundary between the linguistic use of pail and bucket is called __________
an isogloss.
Chapter 7
Religion
Textbook Examples
---
Religion
Defined by Robert Stoddard and Carolyn Prorak as "a system of beliefs and practices that attempts to order life in terms of culturally perceived ultimate priorities"
Branch
large and fundamental division within a religion
Denomination
A division within a branch of a religion
Sect
small denominational group that has been broken away from an established church
Soviet Union
Country which espoused an official policy of atheism with the goal of discouraging and suppressing religious practice
Islam
Despite official policies of atheism, some people in the USSR still adhered to this religion, but only older citizens were able to practice it (in remote corners of the Soviet Union)
Religion and Language
_____ and ______ lie at the foundation of culture: both confer and reflect identity
Disallows the consumption of Pork
Hinduism
Europe
The most secular countries in the world today are located here
The Christian Religion
______ was a major part of life in Europe for centuries, and resulted in much art, architecture, history, customs, and cultural norms being derived from it
Zoroastrianism
_______ is regarded as the first monotheistic religion, and was developed 3500 years ago in Southwest Asia
How have people in Subsaharan Africa been affected by the diffusion of major world religions?
A rapid transformation occurred in Subsaharan Africa from polytheistic to monotheistic religions. In fact, from 1900-2010, the number of Muslims in Subsaharan Africa had grown from 11 million to 234 million, and the number of Christians had grown from 7 million to 470 million.
Christianity and Islam
These two major world religions were influenced by Judaism and Greek philosophy
Of the 1.2 billion people in India, _____ are Muslims, which makes India the third largest Muslim country in the world behind _______ and ______
161 million; Indonesia and Pakistan
True or False: Large numbers of Africans who actively participate in Christianity or Islam do so while also believing in witchcraft, evil spirits, sacrifices to ancestors, traditional religious healers, reincarnation, and other elements of traditional African religions
True
Secularism
Although the map of world religions (Figure 7.6: pg. 210) shows the global distribution of major world religions, it fails to reflect the rise in ______ in the world, especially in Europe
Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism
Three examples of universalizing religions are...
Judaism
Although most ethnic religions are spatially concentrated, an exception would be ______, whose adherents are widely scattered as a result of forced and voluntary migrations
Hinduism
The third largest religion in the world, dating back over 4000 years
True or False: Hindus consider their religion as polytheistic
False; most Hindus consider themselves monotheistic, as there is one god Brahman, and all other gods are distinct expressions of Brahman
Hindu
Unlike Christianity and Islam, the _____ religion is not centrally organized
caste system
Hindu's doctrines are closely bound to Indian society's ______ ______
Hindu culture
It is accurate to say that India's culture (and therefore its cultural landscape) is a direct reflection of _____________________
Balinese
A religious development based on Hinduism, but incorporated with elements of Buddhism, animism, and ancestor worship (big hint: located in Bali [an island next to Java])
South Asia and Bali
Outside _______ and _______, Hinduism's presence is relatively minor
Buddhism
Splintered from Hinduism over 2500 years ago, and was established by Prince Siddartha, heir to a wealthy kingdom in what is now Nepal (he founded it in India, however)
The Buddha [Prince Siddartha]
The enlightened one; taught that salvation could be attained by anyone, no matter what his or her caste
Fundamentals of Buddhism
Enlightenment comes through knowledge (especially self-knowledge); elimination of greed, craving, and desire; complete honesty; and never hurting another person or animal
Emperor Asoka
Leader of a large and powerful Indian empire that extended from the Punjab to Bengal and from the Himalayan foothills to Mysore; after Buddha's death in 489 BCE, he set out to rule his country in accordance with the teachings of Buddha, and also sent out missionaries to carry Buddha's teachings to distant peoples
How many humans adhere to Buddhism?
347 million
Theravada Buddhism
The largest branch of Buddhism, practiced in Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, and Cambodia
Mahayana Buddhism
Another branch of Buddhism practiced in Vietnam, Korea, Japan, and China
Shintoism
A form of Buddhism mixed with a local religion in Japan
Confucius
A wise Chinese man who, with his followers, constructed a blueprint for Chinese civilization in almost every field. After the construction of the Confucian Classics, Confucianism became the focus of education in China for 2000 years
Chinese
In 1949, this government attempted to ban religion from public practice, with little success
Jews
Adherents to Judaism, which formed 4000 years ago when Abraham united his people to worship only one God
Zionism
the movement to unite the Jewish people of the diaspora to establish a national homeland for them in the promised land (historically centered around Jerusalem); became successful in 1948 when the UN established the Jewish state of Israel
Jesus Christ
Founder of Christianity; believed to be the son of God; Christians believe that Jesus died and rose again, and by accepting this they attain forgiveness and salvation
The Jews of Central Europe are known as ...
Ashkenazim
The vote to partition Palestine was taken by
The United Nations
Islam; founded around 615 CE
The youngest major religion is_____
Hinduism and Islam
Sikhism is a small compromise religion that arose from the confrontation between ______ and _______
Abraham, Jesus, and Mahammad
Muslims believe that Allah revealed himself through the prophets of ______________________
Largest Branch of Christianity
Roman Catholic; more than 1 billion adherents
Emperor Diocletian
Attempted to unite the Roman Empire by dividing it, which resulted in the first major split in Christianity between Roman Catholics and Eastern Orthodox in 1054 CE
Sunni and Shi'ite
The two main branches of Islam
False; Based on 2002 poll data, only 30% of Canadians felt that religion was very important to them, and 56% of Americans felt that religion was very important to them
True or False: North Americans feel a strong integration of religion in their lives
Jerusalem
A sacred site for Christianity, Islam, and Judaism
The Western Wall
Area of Jerusalem sacred to Jews; remnants of the second temple constructed by Jews centuries ago
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Area of Jerusalem sacred to Christians; Christians believe this is where Jesus rose from the dead
The Dome of the Rock
Area of Jerusalem sacred to Muslims; Muslims believe this is where Muhammad ascended into heaven
Religious Architecture
Churches and monasteries in Christianity; pagodas in Buddhism; mosques in Islam; shrines in Hinduism
Nigeria
An example of an interfaith boundary [boundary between the world's major faiths], as North Nigeria is Islam, while South Nigeria is Christian
North Ireland
An example of an intrafaith boundary [boundary within a single major faith], as there is a strong tension between Protestants and Roman Catholics
Israel and Palestine
Home to one of the most contentious religious conflicts in the world today
The Former Yugoslavia
In this region, a strong conflict between Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christians was present, and resulted in various conflicts. Within this region, Muslims became the victims of ethnic cleansing
Lao-Tsu
Founder of Taoism
False. However, Islam for example has various groups of extremists which follow the fundamentals of the Jihad ["Holy War," which is their justification for acts of terror such as the destruction of the World Trade Center in NY, NY on 9.11.01]
True or False: All religions have adherents with extremist ideals
Over 33,000
How many denominations of Christianity exist?
No, Buddhism was founded by the Buddha in Northern India, which currently has a very small number of adherents to Buddhism.
Does Buddhism still play an important role in its country of origin?
The Roman destruction of Jerusalem
The diaspora of the Jews resulted from _______________
The Vedas
The four texts that make up the sacred books of Hinduism
Dalits
the lowest of the Indian caste system (actually, they're considered below it)
Easter
Christians celebrate ___________ as the day which Jesus rose from the dead
2.25 Billion
How many people adhere to Christianity?
Actual Test Questions
---
Christianity
The Yellow River is to Chinese Philosophy as the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers are to ___________
Atheism
Ethnic strife in former Soviet regions reflects the legacy of the Soviet policy of _________
Always Polytheistic
Which of the following is not generally a characteristic of an ethnic religion?
Sudan
Islam is predominate in northern ________, while traditional religions are predominant in the south
Indus
Hinduism arose in the _______ River Valley
Shi'ite (or Shia) Islam
Azerbaijan, a former Soviet nation, contains adherents to the faith of ___________
Varanasi
Just as Jerusalem is to Christians, _________ is important to Hindus [note: ________ is known as the city of Lord Shiva]
Karma
________ is the fundamental doctrine of the Hindu faith [note: regards the transferability of the soul]
India
Buddhism has its source in __________
Its area of origin: India
Buddhism does not thrive in ___________________________
Lamaism
The branch of Buddhism which is practiced in Tibet (Xizang) [note: Zen Buddhism is the contemplative form practiced in Japan]
Feng-Shui
Geomancers are associated with ______-_______; according to Taoist tradition, people who know the desires of the powerful spirits of ancestors, dragons, tigers, and other beings occupying the natural world and can give advice on how to order things according to Feng Shui
Canton
The concentration of religions in Switzerland is related to ________ boundaries
1200
By the year _______, Islam had diffused to the East Indies
Ethiopia
The African country with a major cluster of Eastern Orthodox Christianity is __________
Hinduism diffused ___________. This was facilitated by British efforts to transport Hindu Indians to other British colonies (India was, in fact, one of Great Britain's main colonies at the time)
Through the transportation (relocation diffusion) of Indian migrants
Ashkenazim
The Jews of Central Europe are known as _____________ [note: Jews who scattered across North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) after the diaspora are known as Sephardim]
Britain
__________ partitioned Northern Ireland due to its ongoing religious conflict (Protestantism vs. Roman Catholicism)
Chapter 8
Political Geography
Textbook Examples
---
Ghana
_______ was the first Subsaharan African colony to become and independent state (occured in 1960) [249]
Political Geographers
_______ ________ study the spatial manifestations of political processes at various scales: how politically significant spaces were conceived and how these spaces affect outcomes [252]
State
a politically organized territory with a permanent population, a defined territory, and a government; it must be recognized by other states [252]
Although we take it for granted due to its seemingly natural organization, the modern state system is less than
400 years old [252]
Stuart Elden
Pointed out that the modern concept of territory arose in early modern Europe as a system of political units came into being with fixed, distinct boundaries and at least a quasi-independent government [252]
Robert Sack
Defined territoriality as "the attempt by an individual or group to affect, influence, or control people, phenomena, relationships, by delimiting and asserting control over a geographic area [252]
Sovereignty
having a recognized right to control territory both politically and militarily [253]
American Indian
Although ____________ _____________ tribes behaved territorially, it was not in an exclusive manner; they shared land with friends and fought over hunting grounds with foes [253]
Peace of Westphalia
This event in European history marks the beginning of the modern state system; 'twas negotiated in 1648 among the princes of the states comprising the Holy Roman Empire and resulted in treaties ending the Thirty Years' War and creating new defined, demarcated territories within Europe [253]
Nation
a group of people who think of themselves as one based on a sense of shared culture and history, and who seek some degree of political-territorial autonomy [254]
Benedict Anderson
defines the nation as an "imagined community;" this is because one will never meet all of the people in the nation, and it is a community because one nonetheless sees oneself as part of that nation [254]
nationalism
The quest to form nation-states in the Europe of the 1800s was associated with a rise in ___________ [256]
Which European states had essentially the same geographical shape in 1648 as they do now (Figure 8.4)?
Spain, France, Portugal, Denmark [256]
multinational state
Nearly every state in the world is a ___________ ___________ [257]
How is Transylvania a multistate nation?
The region of Transylvania is currently located in the middle of Romania, although it was for two centuries a part of Hungary. The Transylvanian region today is populated by both Romanians and Hungarians, and places within the region are seen as significant for the histories of both states. [257]
What is an example of a stateless nation?
Kurdistan (Figure 8.6) [258]
The Berlin Conference
_____ __________ __________ took place when some of the major colonizers of the world met in 1884-1885 and arbitrarily laid out the colonial map of Africa while totally disregarding the indigenous cultural and political arrangements [259]
When did colonialism reach its peak?
Between 1900-1925 (Figure 8.7) [259]
Which were the three most dominant colonial influences in the world during 1550-1950?
Great Britain, France, and Spain, respectively (Figure 8.8) [260]
Immanuel Wallerstein
Proposed the World-systems theory to help understand the spatial and functional relationships within the world economy. The three basic tenets include: 1. The world economy has one market and a global division of labor. 2. Although the world has multiple states, almost everything takes place within the context of the world economy. 3. The world economy has a three-tier structure (core, periphery, and semi-perihpery [refer to Figure 8.10]) [262-263]
True or False: All states have the same ability to influence other states
False; not all states have the same ability to influence other states, nor do all have the power to achieve their political goals [263]
What are centripetal forces?
Forces which unite people; examples include nationalism, religion [264]
What are centrifugal forces?
Forces which divide people; examples include ethnocultural differences, unequal distribution of power [264]
What are the two types of states?
Federal and Unitary [264]
What are some examples of federal states?
The United States, Nigeria, and Belgium [264]
What are some examples of unitary states?
UK, France, Spain [264]
What is devolution, and in what ways does it occur?
Devolution is the process whereby power is shifted from the central government to regional governments within the state. There are many influences on devolution, including ethnocultural, economic, and territorial. [265-268]
What are dry counties, and where can they be found in the United States?
They are counties with laws forbidding the sale of packaged alcohol; they can be found in many Baptist (Protestant) counties, such as in Arkansas (Figure 8.12) [266]
Hawai'i
The United States faces its most serious devolutionary pressures on the islands of _________ [269]
Electoral geographers
_________ _________ examine how the spatial configuration of electoral districts and the voting patterns that emerge in particular elections reflect and influence social and political affairs. [269]
South Africa; over 40%
________ _________ has become one of the world leaders in the percent of women who hold seats in parliament or legislature, with at least 35% of its seats designated for women. As of 2011, ________ of South Africa's governmental seats are held by women. [Figure 5.17 on pg.166-167; 269]
In the United States, how many representatives does each state get for the Senate?
Two [270]
In the United States, how many representative does each state get for the House of Representatives?
This is based on population; states with the largest population have the highest number of representatives, and vice-versa [270]
Who deals with what in the United States government?
The National (Federal) government controls issues that affect the entire country and interactions between states (eg. immigration, trade between states), while individual states essentially control everything else (eg. death penalty, access to alcohol, right carry concealed weapons) [264 & 270]
Gerrymandering
____________ is a political endeavor through which politicians are able to redistrict certain areas to their advantage, usually dealing directly with the people's votes [271]
Following the 1990 census, States (in the U.S.A.) increased the number of majority minority districts (which are packed districts in which a majority of the population is from the minority) in the House of Representatives from ______ to ______.
27 to 52 [271]
True or False: Boundaries are 2-D lines which divide states with reference to only the land upon which they thrive.
False; a boundary between states is in actuality a vertical plane that cuts through the rocks below (subsoil) and the airspace above, which only makes a line when intersected with the surface of the land (Figure 8.18). [272]
How and why do boundary disputes occur?
Boundary disputes often occur due to conflicts regarding the ownership of resources or violations of border laws; for example, the Rumaylah Oil Field lies on the boundary of Iraq and Kuwait. Iraqis accused Kuwaitis of overdrilling (exploiting the oil) and drilling oblique bore-holes which infringed upon Iraq's boundary (Figure 8.19). This in part led to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990. Other such issues have occured amongst Belgium, the Netherlands, and Germany with regards to coal, and between Germany and the Netherlands over natural gas. [272]
What are the two types of boundaries mentioned in the book?
Geometric (based upon grid systems such as latitude/longitude, township-and-range); and Physical-political (also called natural-political; based upon an agreed-upon feature in the natural landscape such as the center point of a river or the crest of a mountain range) [273]
Geopolitics
____________ is the interplay among geography, power, politics, and international relations on the earth's surface [275]
Who was Friedrich Ratzel, and what did he study?
He was a German professor who, being influenced by the writings of Charles Darwin, postulated that the state resembles a biological organism through its life cycle: birth, maturity, then decline and death. He also asserted that, in order to prolong its existence and provide itself with "nourishment," a state would need to acquire territories , a process he called lebensraum. His works probably would have been forgotten had they not been used to forge Nazi expansionism. [275-276]
Who developed the heartland theory, and what does it entail?
Sir Halford J. Mackinder; it essentially conveys that whoever controls Eurasia can efficiently gain the power to contol the world [see pg. 276 for full description]
How have some American leaders spatialized politics?
Often, some American leaders spatialize the politics of the globe into a world of "us" and "them," "us" being an imaginary, unified, American nation, and "them" historically being a personification of antagonism, currently cited as terrorism or even more generally the "Islamic World." [277]
What are supranational organizations, and what are their implications for the state?
Supranational organizations are entities composed of three or more states that forge an association and form an administrative structure for mutual benefit and in pursuit of shared goals. The rise of surpranational organizations in the world has rendered individual states significantly less powerful and, in cases such as the European Union, even seemingly redundant at the global scale. [278-287].
How many member states are in the United Nations?
192 [279]
What was the Marshall Plan?
It was the United States effort to finance a European recovery program; from 1948 to 1952, the United States gave Europe about $12 billion in foreign aid, which revived European national economies and spurred a movement toward cooperation among European states. [279]
Supranationalism
_____________ is a worldwide phenomenon
What are some examples of supranational organizations?
NAFTA; ACS; MERCOSUR; ECOWAS; APEC; and of course, the European Union (EU)
What are the implications of deterritorialization?
The processes of deterritorialization are creating economic, social, and cultural geographies that look less like the map of states. Due to globalization, networked communities, and such related things, the state's traditional territorial authority is being undermined; supranationalism combined with deterritorialization are raising questions as to whether the division of the world info territorial states is logical, effective, or even necessary. [284 & 286]
Discussion Questions
---
Summarize the world-systems theory
In order to understand a state's condition, it is necessary to also understand its spatial and functional relationships within the world economy; also, the world is divided into three tiers: the core, periphery, and semi-periphery
List some core countries.
United States, UK, Australia, and Spain
List some periphery countries.
Chad, Madagascar, Lesotho, Mongolia
What is the relationship between core and periphery countries?
Core countries tend to exploit peripheral countries in order to achieve economic gain
What kind of nation is Kurdistan?
'Tis a stateless nation
Why does it make Kurdistan vulnerable to be this kind of nation?
Because it has no representative power; also, its people are divided between two different states
How does human behavior affect our views on sovereignty?
Humans seek territoriality, which is the attempt to influence and control a piece of land and/or its inhabitants. This territorial behavior implies control over a territory, which in turn is used to define sovereignty. Therefore, the extent to which humans are active and the types of activities they do in a location impact what is internationally accepted as "sovereignty"
What is a nation-state?
A politically organized area in which nation and state occupy the same space (eg. Japan)
How did the European nation-state spread to other parts of the world?
Through two waves of colonialism
When did most African states gain independence?
Most African states gained independence in or after 1940
What is devolution?
The movement of power from the central government to regional governments within the state
Who was Sir Halford Mackinder? What did he study?
He was an Oxford University geographer who studied power relationships at a time when Britain had acquired a global empire through its strong navy
Why was Mackinder concerned about Stalin? What was established because of this concern?
He was concerned that the Soviet Union would attempt to control the states of Eastern Europe, which he viewed would let Stalin rule like this: by controlling East Europe, Stalin would control the Heartland; by controlling the Heartland, Stalin would control the World Island (Eurasia); and by controlling the World Island, Stalin would control the world. His concern sparked the creation of NATO, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
What is gerrymandering? Why is it unethical?
A political process whereby politicians redistrict areas to take advantage of the districts' locations; it is unethical because it allows politicians to redistrict areas to benefit themselves and potentially stay in office for long periods of time; an unintended consequence which often occurs is that gerrymandering minimizes minority concerns
What is reapportionment? How often do we (in the U.S.) do it?
The process through which districts are moved according to population shifts, so that each district encompasses about the same number of people; The United States reapportions its districts every ten years
Who was Friedrich Ratzel? What did he study?
He was a German professor who, after being influenced by the writings of Charles Darwin, postulated that the state resembles a biological organism whose life cycle extends from birth through maturity and, later, decline and death. He also explained that a state would need to provide itself with nourishment in order to survive (the acquisition of territory). This he called lebensraum
What kind of law does Nigeria have in the northern part of the country?
It has Shari'a law
Why does it have this kind of law?
This is due to the fact that nearly the whole of northern Nigeria is Islam. Therefore, its people follow Muslim laws
What form of government would Nigeria need to have (in order to have 2 different types of justice systems)?
Federal
What was one of the most powerful impacts of colonialism on the construction of a global order?
Colonialism impacted the construction of a global order heavily, as it emphasized the wide range of differences in economic and political power between the core and periphery
What is supranationalism?
A process whereby entities are composed of three or more states and forge an administrative association for mutual benefit and in pursuit of shared goals
What was the League of Nations? Why was it formed? Which country wasn't included?
It was the precursor of the United Nations, and was an international peacekeeping organization first conceived by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson after WWI. In total, 63 nations joined the league, though total membership at any given time was never this expansive. The United States never joined, as isolationists in the U.S. Senate opposed joining. The Soviet Union was expelled in 1939 after its invasion of Finland.
Why does the United Nations exist? What does it do?
It exists to foster international security and cooperation; it deals with many global issues, including environment, human rights, agriculture, migration, war, and its representatives are able to vote upon possible actions in order to ameliorate various problems
What type of boundary is between the U.S. and Canada (west of the Great Lakes)?
Geometric Boundary
Summarize what shatterbelt regions are.
They are areas of instability between regions with opposing political and cultural values
What is a frontier?
Political area near or beyond a border separating two countries
Which of these regions would be considered a frontier (today):
Eastern Europe
Compare
contrast Greek city-states with the concept of nation-state./Greek city-states existed thousands of years ago, and consisted of many city-states, including Athens, Sparta, Corinth, Magara, and Agora, for example. They are similar to nation-states, as they were groups of collective people (nations) living in a relatively designated area (nation-states). However, they were not constituents of an actual state; although each city-state's people regarded themselves as Greek, they would never refer to themselves firstly as Greek because Greece was not an actual state during that time
How is Singapore an example of a modern day city-state?
Singapore is a mini, mini state, as it is very, very small. It is essentially a city-state, as it is a small island with a single primary (Primate) city
What is sovereignty?
Having a recognized right to control a territory both politically and militarily
Are the Spratly Islands a sovereign state? Is Hong Kong?
The Spratly islands are not a sovereign state, as they contain no native inhabitants, while some are controlled by other states. Hong Kong is not a sovereign state either, as it is formally a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China
Why is Japan considered a nation-state?
This is because nearly the entire population is Japanese. This enables Japanese citizens to incessantly possess strong cultural, ethnic, and linguistic ties
Why are the U.S. and Australia considered immigrant states?
They are both considered immigrant states because they both are the target for large numbers (tens of millions) of immigrants.
What are antecedent boundaries?
Boundaries which existed before the present day cultural landscape developed
What are subsequent boundaries?
Political boundaries that developed concurrently with the evolution of the major elements of cultural landscape
Compare
contrast subsequent and antecedent boundaries./They are both based upon the cultural landscape; however, antecedent boundaries are different from subsequent boundaries because they are based upon boundaries which existed prior to the development of the cultural landscape, whereas the latter developed in response to the development of the cultural landscape
What are superimposed boundaries?
It is a political boundary established by a powerful outsider in a developed country
How did colonial powers use superimposed boundaries?
Colonial powers, such as Great Britain, used superimposed boundaries in order to subjugate natives and emphasize their power over the area (eg. The division of African countries by the British; Indonesia/Papa New Guinea Border)
What are relic boundaries?
They are political boundaries which no longer function, but still leave an impression on the cultural landscape (eg. The former boundary between North and South Vietnam; The Berlin Wall)
Give an example of two countries whose border was established for religious purposes.
Sudan and South Sudan
Give 2 examples of a natural boundary.
The Rio Grande River constitutes part of the United States/Mexico border, as it divides the U.S. state of Texas from the Mexican State; another example the boundary between France and Spain which follows the peaks of the Pyrenees mountains
What is another name for a natural boundary?
Physical-political boundary
What are some disadvantages to using water as a natural boundary?
Water tides fluctuate over a range of several hundred meters, which makes for inaccuracies
What do perforated states look like?
One state which completely surrounds another (eg. Lesotho, Vatican City)
What are micro states?
Sovereign states having a small population and/or small landmass
What do prorupted states look like?
They are states with a long extension protruding from the primary body
What are buffer states, and how are they vulnerable?
Buffer states are those which are compressed between two much more powerful states (eg. Mongolia between China and Russia; Poland following WWI between Germany and the Soviet Union). They are extremely vulnerable to political bombardment by one or both neighbors, and are usually very susceptible to destruction if violent conflict arises
What do fragmented states look like?
They look like shattered pieces of glass (eg. Indonesia, the Phillipines)
What do elongated states look like?
They look like stretched-out rods (eg. Chile, Vietnam)
MC - Study Guide
---
The European Union's future expansionism into the Muslim realm by the inclusion of ____________ is highly controversial and strongly opposed by Greece.
Turkey
Sir Halford Mackinder developed what would become known as the heartland theory, which suggested that interior Eurasia contained a critical "pivot area" that would generate a state capable of world domination. The key to the area according to Mackinder was
Eastern Europe
The movement of power from the central government to regional governments is referred to as
devolution
The boundaries of independent African states were drawn at the Berlin Conference and were essentially drawn along
arbitrary lines
Yugoslavia was a prime example of a
multination state
The present number of countries and territories in the world is approximately
200
The view of human territorial behavior implies an expression of control over space and time. This control is closely related to the concept of
Sovereignty
Nigeria is a state with a federal system of government. This fact is reflected in the adoption of _______ law in the states of the Muslim North.
Sharia
In 1943, Mackinder wrote about his concerns over the potential of Stalin's control of the countries of eastern Europe. His views led to the development of the United States' containment policy and to the establishment of
NATO
MC - Geo Website
---
Geographers define ________ as the study of the political organization of the world.
Political geography
A _______ is a politically organized territory with a permanent popoulation, a defined territory, and a government.
State
The 1648 Peace of Westphalia treaties
laid the foundation for a Europe made up of mutually recognized territorial states
Stateless nations
represent one of the comlications that arise from the imperfect fit between nations and states
The results of how __________ organized the flows of raw materials for their own benefit can still be seen in the ___________
colonizers, cultural landscape
World-systems theory
suggests that the world economy has one market and a global division of labor; suggests that almost everything takes place within the context of the world economy; suggests that the world economy has a three-tiered structure; suggests that the core and the periphery are not only places, but also sites where particular processes take place
___________ factors into the unification and division in a state at any given point.
Timing, scale, interation, and perspective
France and Spain are examples of
unitary governments.
State boundaries ____________
have less meaning today than one-hundred years ago.
_____________ are boundaries that follow an agreed-upon feature in the natural landscape.
Physical-political boundaries
Ratzel is to ___________ as Mackinder is to __________.
lebensraum, the heartland theory
For scholars of critical geopolitics, Ronald Regan, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush __________
were intellectuals of statecraft.
____________ is an example of supranationalism.
The European Union; The North American Free Trade Association; The North Atlantic Treaty Organization; The World Health Organization
___________ describes the processes that create economic, social, and cultural geographies that do not match the global map of states.
Deterritorialization
Test Questions
---
Wallerstein's views expressed in world systems theory hold that the global integrating force has been
capitalism
_____________ is an example of a country which was never a classical colonial power.
Singapore
The boundaries of independent African states were drawn at the Berlin Conference and were essentailly drawn
arbitrarily
When not all people within a state identify with the dominant sense of nationality, movements for separation of nation and territory may arise. For example the _____ in _______.
Basques, Spain
Kurdistan ______________________.
is a stateless nation
The European state idea spread throughout the world through __________________
European colonialism
One of the most powerful impacts of colonialism was the construction of global order characterized by great differences in _______________________
economic and political power
Most _________ states gained independence after 1940.
African
In The Territorial Imperative, Robert Ardery argued that humans are concerned with _______________
collecting and securing territory
Which country has experienced violent devolution?
Yugoslavia
Distance, remoteness and marginal location enhance the potential for devolution. This form of devolution is referred to as ____________________
spatial devolution
Geometric boundaries, totally unrelated to any aspects of the cultural or physical landscape, were made of considerable use by the colonial powers in
Africa
One move by the old League of Nations that would have a critical impact in the second half of the twentieth century involved
maritime boundaries
Technically supranationalism refers to efforts by _____ or more states to forge associations for common advantage and in pursuit of common goals.
3
One move by the old League of Nations that would have a critical impact in the second half of the twentieth century involved
maritime boundaries
Participation in the United Nations serves the useful purpose of commiting states to
international standards of behavior
The UN is not a world government, but in recent years individual states have asked the UN to do a number of different things, the most expensive of which is
peacekeeping
As of 2005, which major European Union nation has not entered the Euro Monetary Zone?
Great Britain
Listed among the challenges to the state in the 21st century are all the following except
the United Nations
A region not fully integrated into a national state that is often marginal or underdeveloped is called a
frontier
Which cultural hearth is credited with the creation of city-states, which eventually lead to the creation of the concept of nation-state?
Greece
An example of a modern day city-state is
Singapore
In contrast to a state, a nation
is a cultural concept implying a group of people occupying a particular territory and unified by shared beliefs
Which of the following states fits the morphology description of compact?
Poland
Which of the following is a characteristic of compact states?
Circular with the capital located in the center of the state
Fragmented states can help create which type of forces within a state?
Centrifugal
Which types of countries usually encompass diverse types of climates, resources, and peoples?
Elongated
A country with this shape can provide access to a resource, or it can separate two countries that would otherwise share a boundary.
Prorupted
A country's morphology which can weaken its stability is an enclave is ocupied by people whose values systems differ from the surrounding state is called
Perforated
Which of the following is an example of an exclave in the United States?
Alaska
Which of the following states in an enclave?
Vatican City
Which of the following is true for landlocked States?
hey are at a commercial and strategic disadvantage
Which of the following is a landlocked state?
Mongolia
What is the term for a state that is small in both population and size?
micro-state
Which of the following best describes an impact of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea for maritime micro states?
The Exclusive Economic Zone provsions increased the resources and economic viability of these states
Which of the following states use mountains as a boundary?
Brazil and Peru
All of the following are disadvantages of using water as bounaries EXCEPT for
buffer zones between states
The boundaries between which set of countries were established primarily to separate different religions?
India and Pakistan
Chapter 9
Urban Geography
Study Guide WS (Ch. 9)
---
The _________ is the downtown or concentration of business or commerce.
central business district
The population of Detroit rose and fell with the _________ industry. The population peaked at ________ million in 1950, but the 2010 census shows the city's population falling to ________.
automobile, 1.8, 713,777
Worldwide, today more people live in _______ areas than in rural areas. _________ refers to the central city and surrounding areas. For most of human history, the world was largely __________. The _______ _______ in the mid-1700s marks the time when urbanization exploded for the first time.
urban, Urban, rural, Industrial Revolution
___________ are the centers of political power and industrial might, ___________ __________ and technological innovation, artistic achievement and medical advancements. They are anchors and instigators of modern __________. A ___________ is an agglomeration of people and buildings clustered together to serve as a center of _________, _________ and ___________.
Cities, higher education, culture, city, politics, culture, economics
In the modern world, _________ can happen quite quickly. Archaeological evidence indicated that people established the first cities about ________ years ago.
urbanization, 8000
The switch from __________ and __________ to agriculture occured prior to urbanization. Agricultural villages were relatively ________ in size and in population. Everyone living in an _________ _________ was involved in agriculture at the most basic level.
hunting, gathering, small, agricultural village
Two components enabled cities to grow: ________ _____________ and ________ ___________. The _________ __________ or urban elite, consisted of a group of decision makers and organizers who controlled the resources, and often the lives of others. They also controlled the _______ supply.
agricultural surplus, social stratification, leadership class, food
The innovation of the city is called the _________ ___________ ___________ and it occured independently in six separate hearths. The first urban hearth is __________, located in between the rivers __________ and ____________. _____________ dominated the urban landscape.
first urban revolution, Mesopotamia, Tigris, Euphrates, Temples
The second urban hearth of urbanization if the _________ _________ __________. The third hearth is the _________ ___________ _________. The fourth urban hearth arose around the confluence of the _________ _________ and __________ __________ of present-day China. Chronologically, the fifth urban hearth is __________. Many cities centered on religious _________. The most recent archaeological evidence establishes __________ as the sixth urban hearth, chronologically.
Nile River Valley, Indus River Valley, Huang He, Wei Valleys, Mesoamerica, temples, Peru
Ancient cities not only were centers of religion and power, but also served as ____________ nodes. By modern standards, the ancient city was not _________. The cities of Mesopotamia and the Nile Valley may have had between ________ and ________ inhabitants.
economic, large, 10,000, 15,000
Greece is more accurately described as a _________ __________ of urbanization. The largest city of Athens had an estimated _________ inhabitants.
secondary hearth, 250,000
An __________ was the high point of the Greek city, while the ___________ was the name for market.
acropolis, agora
The Romans had a number of large settlements ranging from small ___________ to large __________. The Romans linked these places with an extensive ____________ network that included hundreds of miles of __________.
villages, cities, transportation roads
The ________ of a city is based on its role in the larger, surrounding context. It is its __________ location, its place in the region and the world around it.
situation, relative
The __________ __________ of a city is the layout, its physical form and structure. When we add the purpose or use of buildings to the map of the morphology of a city, we reveal the ___________ __________ of a city. It reveals how different areas or segments of a city serve different ___________. The __________ was the focal point of Roman life. It included the _________, a much grander version of the Greek theatre.
urban morphology, functional zonation, purposes, Forum, Colosseum
During the last decades of the 18th century, the _________ _________ began in Great Britain. Before the second urban revolution could take place, a second revolution in __________ was necessary. With industrialization, cities became unregulated jumbles of activity. Cities of the British Midlands became known as _________ ___________.
Industrial Revolution, agriculture, "black towns"
Site and __________ help explain why cities were planned and why cities thrive or __________. In studying the size of cities and distances between them, urban geographers explored the _______ ________ of different sized cities.
situation, fail, trade areas
The ______ _________ _________ holds that in model urban heirarchy, the population of a city of town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy. According to the rank size rule, if the largest city is 12 million, the next will be _________, the third _________ and the fourth ___________.
rank size rule, 6 million, 4 million, 3 million
The rank size rule does not apply in all countries, especially one with a ______ ______. A ________ _________ is a "country's leading city, always disproportionately large and exceptionally expressive of national capacity and feeling (definition by Mark Jefferson)."
dominant city, primate city
__________ created the central place theory. His assumptions include the following: _________________________________________. Within a trade area of the largest central place, a series of larger __________ would provide functions to several smaller places. The central place theory is in the shape of a ______________.
Walter Christaller, first, the surface of the ideal region would be flat and have no physical barriers; second, soil fertility would be the same everywhere; third, population and purchasing power would be evenly distributed; next, the region would have a uniform transportation network to permit direct travel from each settlement to the other; and, finally, from any given place, a good or service could be sold in all directions out to a certain distance

towns, hexagon
The ___________ ___________ phenomenon stresses that central place notions still have a role in explaining current developments. In this phenomenon, millions of Americans move from the ___________ to the __________ and ____________.
Sun Belt, North, South, Southwest
One way to conceptualize the layout of cities is through the __________ that illustrate the structures of cities. Each model of the city, regardless of the region, is a study of ___________ -- the division of the city into certain regions (__________) for certain purposes (_____________).
models, functional zonation, (zones), (functions)
The term __________ is typically preceded by a descriptor that conveys the purpose of that area of the city. The term ________ ________ refers to the urban area that is not suburban. A _________ is an outlying, functionally uniform part of an urban area and is often adjacent to the central city. Suburbanization is the process by which lands that were previously outside of the _________ environment become ____________.
zone, central city, suburb, urban, urbanized
Ernest Burgess made the ________ __________ _________ after the city of ___________. It is comprised of __________ concentric rings, defined by their function. At the center is the ________, zone 2 characterized by residential __________ and encroachment by business and light manufacturing. Zone 3 comprises closely spaced but adequate homes occupied by a _________ collar labor force. Zone 4 consists of ___________ residences, and zone 5 is the ___________ ring.
Concentric Zone Model, Chicago, 5, CBD, deterioration, blue, middle--class, suburban
Homer Hoyt created the __________ model. He focused mainly on ___________ patterns, explaining where the wealthy in a ________ choose to live. He argued that the city grows _________ from the center. The zones could be shaped like a piece of __________.
Sector, residential, city, outward, pie
_______ _____ _________ proposed the multiple nuclei model in the 1940s, with the _________ losing its dominance.
Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman, CBD
Most urban geographers think these models are too ____________ to describe the modern city.
simplistic
Cities that are located near freeways and intersections are called ________ __________.
edge cities
Primate cities in developing countries are called ___________ when the city has a large population, a vast territorial extent, rapid in-migration, and a strained, inadequate infrastructure.
megacities
The Latin American city model is referred to as the ___________ model. It consists of a _____________ in the center.
Griffin-Ford model, CBD
_____________ are unplanned developments of dwellings made of scrap and cardboard, and develop around cities.
Shanytowns
The South American city also has a disamenity and periferico that can be home to ________ and ________ ________.
gangs, drug lords
The African city has ______ CBDs and has _________ __________ _________ in its outer ring.
3, informal satellite townships
The Southeast Asian city has a _________ _________ instead of a CBD and is referred to as the _________ model. The alien commercial zone is dominated by ___________ merchants.
Port Zone, McGee, Chinese
Through _______ ________, cities define areas of the city and designate the kinds of development allowed in each zone. Portland, Oregon, is often described as the best planned city because it is a _________ ________ with office buildings and residential zones in close proximity to encourage ___________, biking, and public transportation. ___________, Texas is the only city that does not have zoning laws.
zoning laws, compact city, walking, Houston
Many of the most populous cities in the world are located in the __________ prosperous parts of the world, including places like _________________. Cities in poorer parts of the world generally lack enforcable ________ _________.
less, Mexico City; Mumbai; Sao Paulo; Dehli

zoning laws
Redlining involves financial institutions refusing to give ___________ to minorities looking for housing in __________ __________.
loans, black neighborhoods
Blockbusting occured when __________ tried to get whites to sell their homes under the guise that ____________ were moving into the neighborhood.
realtors, a black person or family
When cities or individuals buy up and rehabilitate housing, rasing the value of the neighborhood, it is called ______________.
gentrification
After a home is torn down, newer homes are sometimes referred to as ______________.
McMansions
A major problem with cities involving unrestricted growth and congestion is called ___________ _________. To counter this problem, a number of architects, urban planners, and developers outlined an urban design known as __________ __________. In this development, urban revitalization and suburban reform create ______________ neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs.
urban sprawl, new urbanizm, walkable
________ __________ are fenced-in neighborhoods with controlled access gates for people and automobiles.
Gated communities
European cities are much older than American cities and were therefore designed for ___________ and horse traffic. They are typically more __________, densely populated and walkable than American __________.
foot, compact, cities
The illegal activities of an economy that can't be recorded as income such as drugs and under the table money are part of the __________ economy.
informal
_______________ cities function at the global scale, beyond the reach of the state borders, functioning as the service centers of the world economy.
World
Chapter 10
Development
Textbook Examples
---
What was the historial significance of Timbuktu?
It was the intellectual, spiritual, and economic center of the 13th-16th centuries; its welath derived from its ability to control the trans-Sahara trade in gold, salt, ivory, kola nuts, and slaves. [335[
What does it mean to say that a country is developing?
To say a country is developing is to say progress is being made in technology, production, and socioeconomic well-being. [337]
What is GNP?
The measure of the total value of the officially recorded goods and services produces by the citizens and corporation of a country in a given year. [337]
What's the difference between GNP and GDP?
Gross Domestic Product only encompasses goods and services produced within a country during a given year. [337]
Who was Walt Rostow?
He was an economist who developed the modernization model, which assumes that all countries follow a similar path to development , advancing through five stages of development. [339]
Where are dependency ratios the highest?
In subSaharan Africa (Figure 10.4) [340-1]
Development happends in _______: it reflects what is happening in a place as a result of forces operating concurrently at multiple scales.
context [342]
Who was Immanuel Wallerstein?
Concieved the World-systems theory, which divides the world into a three-tier structure -- the core, peripher, and semiperiphery -- which helps explain the interconnections between places in the global economy. [343]
What were the Millenium Development Goals of the UN?
1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
2. Achieve universal primary education
3. Promote gener equality and empower women
4. Reduce child mortality
5. Improve maternal health
6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
7. Ensure environmental sustainability
8. Develop a global partnership for developemt
[344]
Will the goals be met by 2015?
No, not all of them [244]
What are the barriers to economic development?
Social conditions, foreign debt, disease, and social corruption and instability [345-354]
Is wealth evenly distributed within states?
No, not at all. Although a state may have a high GNI, its wealth will be unevenly distributed among its population. This is seen throughout the world. [358-363]
MC - Textbook Website (Ch. 10)
---
The concept of development is
about being nodes along commodity chains; about transforming peripheral processes into core processes; about redirecting profit generated through core processes to improve the periphery; elusive
__________ best measures a country's wealth in the context of the global economy, but masks extremes in the distribution of wealth within a country.
Gross National Income (GNI)
Critics argue that __________ has a Western bias, and treats countries as autonomous units moving through a process at different speeds.
Rostow's Modernization Model
A __________ holds that difficult-to-change, large-scale economic arrangements shape what can happen in fundamental ways.
stucturalist theory
Key goals of the United Nations Millennium Declaration include all of the following except __________
eliminate terrorism
In order to secure structural adjustment loans countries often have to __________
implement economic or government reforms; privatize government entities; open up to foreign trade; encourage foreign direct investment
Malaria ______________
is a vectored disease; kills about 150,000 children each month; is spread by mosquitoes; is being fought with genetically engineered mosquitoes.
Barriers to development include all of the following except __________
biologic diversity
Pollution, desertification, and tourism might be considered __________
costs of development
One critique of __________ is that they function as a parallel state, financed by foreigners and accountable to no one.
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)
A country might move its capital in order to __________.
appease ethnic minorities; stimulate economic development; encourage migration; create islands of development.
Chapter 11
Agriculture
Study Guide WS (Ch 11)
---
Cattle Ranchers in __________ ___________ started growing soybeans when genetically modified __________ made it possible to grow the crop there
South Dakota; soybeans
___________ is a company that produces Roundup
Monsanto
The production of crops without the use of pesticides and fertilizers is called ________ ________. Although they (organic foods) are found everywhere, most are sold in the _______ ________ in countries such as the United States, Canada, Japan, Australia, and countries in Europe. Some benefits of organic agriculture include: ______________________.
organic agriculture; (global) economic core; reducing levels of of synthetic chemicals in soil and water, health and taste advantages
____________ is the deliberate tending of crops and livestock to produce food, feed, fiber, and fuel.
Agriculture
Economic activities that involve the _________ of economically valuable products from the earth, including agriculture, ranching, hunting, and gathering, fishing, forestry, mining, and quarrying, are called __________ economic activities
extraction; primary
Activities that take a primary product and change it into something else such as toys, ships, processed foods, chemicals, and ________ are ________ economic activities. _________ is the principal secondary activity
buildings; secondary; Manufacturing
___________ economic activities are those service industries that connect producers to consumers and facilitate commerce and trade or help people meet their needs. List some occupations that are involved with this type of economic activity: ____________________
Tertiary; bankers, lawyers, doctors, teachers, nurses, salespeople, clerks, and secretaries
Quarternary economic activities involve ________________, while quinary activities involve _________________.
information or the exchange of money; research or higher education
Examining the proportion of people employed in a given economic sector gives us a basic idea of how the good is _________. For example, in Guatemala, ________% of the labor force is employed in agriculture. Contrast this with Canada, which only has ______% of the labor force employed in agriculture. The tertiary sector of _______ is 75% (of the labor force), contrasted with Guatemala's ________%.
produced; 50%; 2%; Canada; 35%
The high proportion of agriculture in Guatemala tells us that there is a lack of _______. In the United States, less than _______% is employed in agriculture. In the United States, agricultural ________ is at an all-time high.
mechanization; 2; production
fore the advent of agriculture, hunting, _______, and fishing were the most common means of subsistence throughout the world. Before developing _______, hunter-gatherers worked on perfecting tools, controlling _________, and adapting to their environmental needs. The first tools in hunting were simple _________. The use of controlled _________ was another important achievement of human communities.
gathering; agriculture; fire; clubs; fire
Carl Sauer studied the geography of the ___________ Agricultural Revolution, focusing on the location of agricultural hearths and what kinds of agricultural innovations took place in those hearths.
First
_________, _________, and __________ are examples of root crops.
cassava, yams, and sweet potatoes
The majority of people believe seed crops first developed in _________. The cultivation of seed crops marked the beginning of what has been called the ________ _________ __________. The grain crops __________ and __________ grew well in the warm Southeast Asian climate.
Southwest Asia; First Agricultural Revolution; wheat and barley
In Southeast Asia, ______, _______, and ________ were the leading food plants. In Southwest Asia, plant domestication centered on ________, _________ and other grains. In the Mesoamerican region, the basic plants were ______ (________), _________ and several kinds of ________.
taro, yams, and beats; wheat, barley; maize (corn), squashes, and several kinds of beans
Some scholars believe that __________ _________ began earlier than plant domestication. It must have emerged over time, in stages. People kept animals for ________ purposes as well as for _______ and other reasons. Quite possibly, animals attached themselves to human settlements as _______. Goats were domesticated in the _______ Mountains, and sheep in _________.
animal domestication; ceremonial; pets; scavengers; Zagros; Anatolia
Subsistence agriculture is growing only enough food to _________. It declined during the 1900s with the diffusion of _______ agriculture. A return to __________ ___________ has taken hold in parts of the world where farmers feel production for the global market has not benefited them either ________ or culturally.
survive; industrialized; subsistence agriculture; financially
Some ___________ ____________ are sedentary, living in one place throughout the year, but many others move from place to place in search of better land. The latter engage in a form of agriculture known as _______ ________. It is found primarily in ______ and ________ zones where traditional farmers had to abandon plots of land after the soil became infertile. The regions quickly lose their __________, and farmers are forced to move to another parcel of __________. They must clear the ________, turn the ___________, and try again.
subsistence farmers; shifting cultivation; tropical and subtropical; nutrients; land; vegetation; soil
One specific kind of shifting cultivation is _____ and ______ agriculture. Trees are ________ _______, farmers _________ down trees, and all existing vegetation is _______ off. A layer of _______ then forms on the ground and contributes to the soil's fertility.
Slash-and-burn; cut down; slash; burned; ash
For the ______ _______ to take root, a ____ ____ ____ had to take place. _______________________ are some of the main aspects of the Second Agricultural Revolution.
Industrial Revolution; Second Agricultural Revolution; the diffusion of new crops from Europe to the Americas and vice versa, improvements in soil preparation, fertilization, crop care, and harvesting
New __________ improved as well. The ________ ________ enabled farmers to avoid wasting seeds and to plant in rows, making it simpler to distinguish weeds from crops. The Revolution is associated with the time frame of ____________.
technologies; mechanical reaper; the Industrial Revolution (late 1800s and early 1900s)
When commercial agriculture is geared to producting food for people who live in a nearby town or __________, a geographical pattern of land use based on the ____________ of products and the cost of ________ emerges. In the 1800s, von Thunen experienced the _______ Agricultural Revolution first hand. He noted that as one moved _________ from the central city, one commodity or _________ gave way to another. Nearest to the town, farmers produced commodities that were __________ and commanded high prices, such as ___________ products and __________. Much effort would go into production because of the value of the _________ closer to the city. In his time, the town was still surrounded by ________ that provided wood for fuel and burning. In the next ___________ further out crops were __________ perishable and bulkier, including ___________ and other grains. Still further out, ____________ ____________ began to replace field crops.
city; "perishability"; transportation; 2nd; away; crop; perishable; dairy; strawberries; land; forest; ring; less; wheat; livestock ranching
The von Thunen model had certain assumptions: _______________________________
He assumed that all the terrain was flat, that soils and other environmental conditions were the same everywhere, and that there were no barriers to transportation to market
According to the von Thunen model, _________ costs would govern the use of the land. He reasoned that the greater _________ to the market, the higher the _______ costs had to be added to the cost of producing a crop or commodity. The model is often described as the first effort to analyze the _________ character of economic activity.
transport; the distance; transportation; spatial
Geographer Lee Liu studied the spatial pattern of agricultural production in _________. He noted that in lands closer to the village the soil was ________ and productive.
China; fertile
The _________ Agricultural Revolution is also called the Green ____________ and dates back to the ________. It involves ______________________.
Third; Revolution; 1930s; the advent of genetically modified organisms
Americans funded resaerch on maize in ________ and found a hybrid seed so that by 1960 the country was no longer ________ ________. In 1960 the focus shifted to ________ and mixing varieties of ___________, first with IR8 and IR 36. As a result, India became __________ in grain production by the 1980s.
Mexico during the 1940s; importing corn;
India; rice; self-sufficient
The impact of the Green Revolution is highly __________ as the traditional focus of _________, ____________ and ___________ means it only has limited impact in much of _____________.
variable; rice, wheat, and corn; Africa
The promise of increasing ___________ __________ in a world in which almost a billion people are malnourished has led many people to _________ genetically engineered foods. However, others question the ________ risks of ____________ ___________, herbicides, and pesticides which can lead to reduced organic matter and __________ ___________.
food production; support;
health; fertilizers; groundwater pollution
An entire field of biotechnology has sprung up in conjunction with the ___________ __________ ________ and the development of _________ ________ ________. GMOs involve (define) _____________________________________. They are found in _____% of processed foods in the United States. Resistance is found in places such as western __________.
Third Agricultural Revolution; genetically modified organisms;
GMOS: crops that carry new traits that have been inserted through advanced genetic engineering methods; 75%; Europe
The pattern of land ownership seen in the landscape reflects the _________ __________ - the method of land survey through which land ownership and property lines are defined.
cadastral system
The __________ __________ _________ prevails throughout much of the United States and appears as checkerboards across agricultural fields. The U.S. government adopted the system after the American Revolution as part of a cadastral system known as _________________ system. The basic unit was the ________ mile section.
rectangular survey system; township-and-range; 1 square
___________ and ___________ survey is found along the eastern seaboard and uses physical features to demarcate irregular lots.
Metes and bounds
The long-lot survey can be found in the states of ________________ and invovles the use of long, ________ lots.
Louisiana and Texas; narrow
Primogeniture is a Germanic system in which all land passes to the __________ __________.
eldest son
Unlike Japan, in the U.S. Midwest individual farmhouses lie quite apart in what we call __________ __________. __________ ________ is by far the most prevalent rural residential pattern in agricultural areas and invovles groupings of tiny ______ or hamlets. The _________ village is also called _________ and is found in eastern Europe and East Africa. ________ _________ still exist in many rural areas of many countries and are reminders of a turbulent past. Most modern villages are arranged on a __________ __________.
dispersed settlement; Nucleated settlement; clusters;
round; rundling;
Walled villages; grid pattern
Villages everywhere display common qualities, including evidence of social stratification and __________ of buildings. The _________ _______ of buildings within farm villages is more elaborate in some societies than in others.
differentiation; functional differentiation
_______ ______ has come to dominate in the world's economic ______, as well as some places in the ________ and __________. It involves __________-scale grain producers and cattle ranches, ________ equipment and factory-type labor forces, of plantations and profit. It began in the ______ and _______ centuries when Europe became a market for agricultural products from around the world.
Commercial farming; core; semi-perihpery and periphery;
large; mechanized; 18th and 19th centuries
Major changes in transportation and food shortage, especially ________, further intertwined agricultural production and food processing regions around the world during the twentieth century. The ________ industry of Argentina thrived as a result.
refrigeration; beef
_____________ made the climate map on the basis of temperature and precipitation. The dry summer climates are known as __________ climates and are found in areas such as __________________.
Wladimir Koppen; Mediterranean; the surroundings of the Mediterranean Sea, California, Chile, South Africa's Cape, and southern parts of Australia
____________________ are exmaples of plantation crops.
Bananas, sugar, coffee, cocoa, rubber, and tea
Dairying is mainly found in these regions (Figure 11.18): _____________________________________________________
Northeastern United States, UK, Middle-Northwest Europe, Central Europe, Pacific Coast of Australia
_________ _________ involves the raising of domesticated animals for the production of meat and byproducts such as leather and __________. In addition to the large cattle-ranching areas of the United States, Canada, and Mexico, much of eastern _______ and ________ are devoted to ranching.
Livestock rancing; wool; Brazil; Argentina
_________ __________ appears on the map as a primarily subsistence grain-growing area.
Southeast Asia
Only one form of agriculture mentioned in the legend of Figure 11.18 refers to a particular climate zone: _________________. Crops include: ___________________________.
Mediterranean Agriculture; figs, grapes, dates, olives, citrus fruits
Because of the high demand for drugs in the global economic ______________, some farmers in the ___________ find it more profitable to cultivate poppy, coca, or marijuana plants than to grow standard food crops.
core; periphery
One of the most significant contemporary cash crops is _____________. One of the most common ways in which governments influence agriculture is through tax regulations and __________ favoring certain land uses.
Cotton; [cash] subsidies
Agriculture is also affected by social and __________ factors. ___________ is one of the most important luxury crops in the modern world. It was first domesticated in __________ but is now primariliy grown in _________ and _________ America. It is now the ______ most valuable traded commodity in the world.
cultural; Coffee;
Ethiopia; Middle and South America;
2nd
In most cases coffee is produced on enormous, ___________ plantations, where it is picked by local laborers who are hired at very _________ wage rates. Recently coffee production has experienced changes as consumers demand __________ _________ coffee. If a retailer is Free Trade certified, _______% of the retail price goes back to the growers. Fair Trade pressured the chain ________ into selling their coffee. This push for it shows how ___________ movements can influence agriculture.
foreign-owned; low
fair trade;
up to 40%;
Starbucks;
social
____________ is a term for the businesses that provide a vast array of goods and services to support the agricultural industry. Early in the twentieth century, _________ production was highly disaggregated. Now, ________ breeding has produced faster growing, bigger chickens which are housed in enormous ________ houses that are largely _________. _________ houses are concentrated in _____________________.
Agribusiness;
poultry;
selective;
broiler; mechanized;
Broiler; Northwestern Arkansas, northern Georgia, the Delmarva Peninsula (Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia), the Piedmont areas of North Carolina, and the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia
Commercial agriculture creates significant _________ change. The growing demand for _________ foods amd more effiicient technologies are leading to ____________ in many regions of the world.
environmental; protein-rich; overfishing
The growth of ____________ farming and the move toward the use of ___________ foods in some communities can benefit the environment. In recent decades, the popularity of fast-food chains that serve hamburgers has led to the _____________ of wooded areas in order to open up additional pastures for ________ cattle, notably in Central and South America.
organic; local;
deforestation; beef
Food riots in low-income countries remind us that food security remains a _________ for millions of people around the globe. Currently enough food is being _________, but there is an ___________ distribution system and widespread poverty. As cities expand, some of the most fertile land is lost to ___________ and ____________ developments.
challenge; produced worldwide; inadequate;
housing and retail developments
As a result of the growing __________ between farmers and consumers, geographers draw attention to _________ _________, areas that have limited access to fresh, nutritious food.
distance; food deserts
MC - Study Guide (Ch 11)
---
1. In recent years, many wooded areas in ____________ have been deforested to provide beef for hamburgers for fast-food chains in the United States.
D; Central and South America
2. Rice cultivation in Southeast Asia is largely a __________ activity.
E; subsistence
3. Twenty-five percent of world sugar production takes place in the United States, western Europe, and Russia, which is outside of the tropical plantation region and is produced from...
B; Sugar Beets
4. Which of the following is INCORRECT with respect to broiler chicken sales in the United States in 2007?
A; most broilers are grown in uplands regions
5. Coffee was domesticated in Ethiopia. Today, 70% of production is in...
D; Middle and South America
6. Fair trade coffee buyers certify that _____% of the retail price of their coffee goes to the coffee growers
C; 40%
7. The rectangular land division scheme in the United States adopted after the American Revolution is quite unique. Its correct name is...
E; township-and-range system
8. According to Spencer and Thomas, each agricultural hearth was associated with a local grouping of plants. For example, taro, yams, and bananas are associated with the __________ hearth.
They are generally associated with (A) the Meso-American region, although their actual hearth is located in Southeast Asia (B)
9. A form of tropical subsistence agriculture in which fields are rotated after short periods of production is...
C; Shifting cultivation
10. Biogenetic engineering now allows the growing of new plant strains in more arid regions of the Plains States to meet the demand of the _______ industry
B; bio-diesel fuel
11. Which is NOT an example of a primary economic activity?
A; corn flake production
12. In areas of shifting cultivation the population...
B; cannot have a high density
14. Before the intervention of Europeans, the societies practicing subsistence farming were quite equal because...
A; populations were small
15. Poorer countries, producing crops such as sugar,
E; are at the mercy of the purchasing countries that set the prices
Discussion Questions
---
What type of climate is there is South Dakota?
South Dakota's climate is semiarid
What new crop is now being grown there? Why can they grow it now (what prevented them from growing it before)?
...Roundup Ready Soybeans are grown there (they're GMOs)
What is bio-diesel?
Tis fuel that is extracted from plant materials
Has the demand for organic foods increased or decreased?
It has increased dramatically over the last several years
In the Pacific Northwest, what did American Indians specialize in?
Salmon fishing
What did the American Indians in the Great Plains rely upon?
Bison
Where is the hearth for bananas and yams?
The hearth for bananas and yams is The Upper Southeast Asian Mainlands.
Where is the hearth for potatoes?
White potatoes originated in the Andean Highland.
Sweet Potatoes originated in the Meso-American Region.
Where have hemp, eggplant and mangoes come from?
Eastern India and Western Burma.
When and where were goats domesticated?
10,000 years and they were domesticated in the Zagros Mountains.
Where were cattle domesticated?
Anatolia
Out of the 148 species of large herbivores, how many have been domesticated?
14
What are Carl Sauer's theories about why people began to use agriculture?
He theorized that agricultural experiments could only be successful in lands of plenty
Describe the von Thunen model... discuss each ring/section. Why are the rings located where they are?
The center of the model contains the central city; the first ring denotes market gardening and dairying; the second ring denotes forest areas; the third ring represents increasingly extensive field crops, including grains; the fourth and final ring indicates livestock ranching. Beyond this ring is the theoretical distance at which farming becomes unprofitable. The rings are located where they are because they are based upon some of von Thunen's observations that took place in Europe.
Unit VI (Agriculture) Test Questions
---
Which of the following fairly small areas of wheat production still have a major export trade?
Argentina and Australia
Rice cultivation in Southeast Asia is largely a _______ activity
subsistence
Which of the following areas does not have a Mediterranean-type climate?
Southern Florida
In recent years, many wooded areas in _________________ have been deforested to provide beef for hamburgers for fast-food chains in the United States
Central and South America
According to the US Census of Agriculture (2002), there are no acres certified for organic agricutural production in...
Oklahoma and Mississippi
Which is not an example of a primary economic activity?
corn flake production
Guatemala's agricultural sector produces 22.7% of the country's GDP and employs _______% of the labor force
50%
Hunter-gatherers living in the vicinity of the Pacific Ocean specialized in...
salmon fishing
The ratio of percent labor force to percent of GDP in the agricultural sector of Canada (3% of the labor force: 2.3% of GDP) indicates that Canada's agricultural sector is...
machine
According to Carl Sauer, the earliest plant domestication...
probably involved the planting of root crops
Most scholars believe that seed cultivation (First Agricultural Revolution) occured in...
The Fertile Crescent
According to Spencer and Thomas, each agricultural hearth was associated with a local grouping of plants. For example, taro, yams, and bananas are associated with the _______________ hearth
SE Asia
Goats were domesticated 10,000 years ago in the Zagros Mountain region of...
the Fertile Crescent
Cattle were domesticated in and came to be an important cultural feature of...
South Asia
The service region for the domestication of hemp, eggplants, and mangoes is...



The service region for the domestication of hemp, eggplants, and mangoes is...

eastern India and western Burma
Which of the following is not an example of a hunting and gathering group that still existed in the early 2000s?
The Bantu of Southern Africa
About how many people practice shifting cultivation in the world today?
Between 150 million and 200 million
In areas of shifting cultivation the popultaion
cannot have a high density
Colonial powers would make subsistence farmers
grow cash crops in addition to food crops the farmer needed to survive
Which commodity would be found closest to the market town in von Thunen's model?
milk
The Second Agricultural Revolution can generally be traced to Europe within what time frame?
17th and 18th century
In the 1940s, American philanthropists funded research on this crop. By 1960, Mexico no longer depended on imports as production had risen dramatically. The crop is:
corn (maize)
According to the Koppen-Geiger climate classification, the UK has a...
humid temperate climate with no dry season and a cool summer
Examples of luxury crops include:
coffee and tobacco
In villages everywhere, social stratification is reflected by
the range and quality of village houses
Poorer countries, producing such cash crops as sugar,
are at the mercy of the purchasing countries that set the prices
Much of the cotton purchased by the United Kingdom, Western Europe, and Japan is grown in
The United States
Rubber trees were first tapped in...
northern South America's Amazon Basin
The colonial powers transplanted rubber trees to _______________ from Brazil
SE Asia
Which of the following agricultural activities is widespreas in the northeastern U.S. and northwestern Europe?
dairying
Bio-genetic engineering now allows the growing of new strains in more arid regions of the Plains States to meet the demand of the ___________ industry
bio-diesel fuel
Organic food is found in ____ areas
all
Organic food in the United States now constitutes ______% of the total food production
2%