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27 terms

Review for Biology Final

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Cell Division
The process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells
Chromatids
One of two identical sister parts of a duplicated chromosome
Centromere
Area where chromatids of a chromosome are attached
Interphase
Period of the cell cycle between cell divisions
Cell Cycle
Series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
Mitosis
Part of the eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides
Prophase
During this phase the chromatin condenses into chromosomes; the centrioles and a spindle begin to form; the nuclear membrane breaks down
Metaphase
During this phase the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell and each chromosome is connected to a spindle fiber at its centromere
Anaphase
During this phase the sister chromatids separate into individual chromosomes and are moved apart
Telophase
During this phase the chromosomes gather at opposite ends of the cell and lose their distinct shape; two nuclear membranes form
Cyclin
One of a family of closely related proteins that regulate the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
Independent Assortment
Independent segregation of alleles during the formation of gametes
Incomplete dominance
Situation when one allele is not completely dominant over the other
Codominance
When both alleles for a trait contribute to the phenotype of an organism
Diploid
When a cell has both sets of homologous chromosomes
Haploid
When a sell contains only one set of chromosomes and only a single set of genes
Tetrad
Structure that contains 4 chromatids that forms during meiosis
Operator
Region of chromosome in an operon to which the repressor binds when the operon is "turned off"
Operon
A group of genes working together
RNA Polymerase
Enzyme that binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands during transcription
Promoter
Region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA
Inton
Sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein
Exon
Expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein
Codon
Three-nucleotide sequence of mRNA that codes for a single amino acid
Anticodon
Group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
DNA Polymerase
Enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule
Nondisjunction
Error in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes fail to separate