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Terms in this set (66)
"Europe First" strategy
Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin all considered Germany as the most dangerous enemy and decided to focus on defeating Hitler first
U-Boat "wolf packs"
German U-boats patrolled the Atlantic and Caribbean sinking more than 3,500 merchant ships and killing tens of thousands of Allied seamen
General Eisenhower's North African Campaign
commanded the Allied invasion of North Africa to push out Italians and Germans
Stalin wanted a second front opened in Europe to drive hitler out of the USSR, but Roosevelt and Churchill did not feel the Allies were ready for that, so they moved to fight the Germans and Italians in North Africa first
Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower commanded the allies in Africa and once Americans troops arrived the British were able to drive the Axis out of Egypt and they began to surround the Germans
George S. Patton
an innovative tank commander in North Africa known as Blood and Guts who's forces advanced east with heightened confidence until May 1943 when German and Italian forces surrendered
Gen. Eisenhower decided to change his strategies and he placed Gen. George S. Patton in charge of the American forces
The strategy worked because Patton was more aggressive than any other commander the Allies had and by 1943 the German and Italian armies surrendered in Africa
(churchill and FDR only win allies would accept) giving up completely without an concessions
British planes dropped massive amounts of bombs on German cities with a goal to inflict maximum damage
-destroying the German capability of fighting the war and the Germany civilian morale
Destroyed Germans capability to make way by American bombers targeting key political and industrial centers
African American fighter squadron who escorted bombers and protected themselves from enemy fighter pilots by the end not losing a single bomber
commander of US Navy in the Pacific who knew Japanese coding plans and had Navy codebreakers intercept Japanese messages
Battle of Midway
turning point of war in the Pacific ending Japanese advances and setting them on defense
A resounding American victory as we sank 4 Japanese aircraft carries to our 1 and the Japanese never want on the offensive again, making Midway the turning point of the war in the Pacific
Battle of Guadalcanal
US drove Japanese off the Solomon Islands by using duel offensives to force Japan into a two front war
The first American offensive in the Pacific occurred on the island of Guadalcanal in August 1942
After 3 months of heavy fighting the Americans pushed the Japanese off the Island and the Navy strategy of island-hopping took shape where Americans used the Navy, Marines, and Army to push toward Japan in 2 columns, going from islands to island, with the intention of getting closer to Japan to bomb the main islands
Why did Roosevelt support a "Europe First" strategy even though it was Japan that had first attacked the United States?
only Germany had the resources to bomb Britain, fight US and British navies, and invade the SU
our allies are in Europe
it made stalin happy
Describe the horrible conditions during the siege of Stalingrad.
Stalins troops trapped German forces but Hitler wouldn't let them retreat so so the men were left sick, starving, and suffering from frostbite until surrender in 1943
Why is the siege of Stalingrad considered a "turning point" in the Eastern Front?
it was a turning point because it ended any realistic plans Hitler had of dominating Europe
Nazi armies were forced to retreat backward toward Germany
Soviet Union now went offensive
Was the Allied invasion of Italy a success? Give reasons for your answer.
-it gave allies complete control of the Western Mediterranean
-paved the way for an invasion of Italy
-ended the rule of Benito Mussolini
-1943 Italy surrendered and declared war on Germany
-knocks Italy out of war
How does the Battle of Midway illustrate the importance of intelligence gathering and espionage in modern warfare?
codebreakers had intercepted Japanese messages so they could gain plan against it much easier
Why is the victory at Midway considered a "turning point" in the central Pacific?
it ended the seemingly unstoppable Japanese advancements
Japanese forces would never again threaten Hawaii or dominate the Pacific
Japan was now on defense
A.Philip Randolph's "Double-V" Campaign
leader said AA's would not stand for 2nd class citizens and duble V(victory) = fascism and discrimination
(African American leaders hoped the same thing that was happening to women would happen to African Americans, they would be able to find gainful employment, but this was often not the case)
Executive Order 8802
assured fair hiring practices in any job funded with government money and established the Fair Employment Practices Committee to enforce these requirements
(congress of Racial Equality) an organization that sought to apply nonviolent protest as a means of fighting and segregation
These actions did not end segregation, but they did start AA's on the path to it
a US partnership with Mexico where Mexicans were encouraged to come to the US to work on our farms
Japanese-American internment and Executive Order 9066
designated certain areas as war zones from which anyone might be removed for any reason
After the attack on Pearl Harbor Americans became nervous about living with German, Italian, and Japanese americans
Germans and Italians were rounded up a forced to register and some deported
the Japanese were not as fortunate because they did not look like average Americans and had faced discrimination, especially on the West Coast, for decades leading up to the war
The US gov. initially asked the Japanese to leave designated military zones, the West Coast states, but the governors of states next to the military zones complained
The government then instituted a policy of internment, temporary imprisonment of members of a specific group
Japanese men, women, and children from the West Coast were rounded up and forced to move to interment camps in the central part of the country
They were provided with barely enough food and medical supplies and the could only rake a small handful of personal belongings
Korematsu v. United States
a court case where some Japanese Americans went to seek their rights but the Supreme Court upheld the governments wartime internment policy
The Supreme Court upheld the governments wartime internment policy and did not reverse this decision until 1988 when they awarded internees an apology and $20,000
442nd Regimental Combat Team
fought in the Italian campaign and became the most decorated military unit in American History
WWII cost America $330 billion, double the amount of federal expenditures since the founding of the nation
To pay for the war Congress raised income tax rates and they also sold war bonds
Bonds are sold by the US government to civilians and after a set amount of time the buyers run the bond back in and receive the principal plus interests
Increased production of war materials caused a scarcity of consumer goods domestically
In order to endure the resources for war materials was adequate the government began rationing, government-controlled limits on the amount of certain goods that civilians could buy during wartime
Products like butter, rubber, wheat, oil and gasoline were available by upon to ensure civilians only took what the government could afford to give them
Office of War Information
worked closely with the media to encourage support for the war effort and highlight positive stories about soldiers fighting in war
the gaol was to boost morale at home by making Americans feel good about the war
encourage americans to grow Victory Gardens so that instead of buying fruits and vegetables which could be used by the soldiers they grew them instead
Describe population shifts in the U.S.during WWII.
Predict two possible consequences for wartime women factory workers ("Rosie the Riveter") when men began to return from overseas after the war.
wages down because there are more workers
women keep jobs
How were the causes of the Detroit race riots and the Los Angeles Zoot Suit Riots similar?
both of them were caused by migration of minorities entering urban areas with the perception that they are taking the white mans job
How much did WWII cost, and how did the government pay for these expenses?
$330 billion dollars and put a tax on workers and bonds with rationing
Do you think the federal government was justified in limiting individual freedom by imposing wage and price controls and by rationing during wartime? Why or why not?
Why do you think people collected paper, scrap metal, and fats? (look online if you need more information)
to reuse things and paper and fats were used for building things and cooking so people could contribute to war effort
Many labor groups made "no strike" pledges at the start of the war. What was the problem with "wildcat strikes"? [not in textbook--look online)
they did it out of desperation and it turned into violence
General Eisenhower Supreme Commander Allied forces
set up a fake army in Normandy under Patton and Hitler fell for it
It was decided the second front would be open with an amphibious invasion of France's northern coast
Gen. E was give overall command of the invasion force codename Operation Overlord, beginning d-day, h-hour
D-Day landing of Europe (Operation Overlord)
allies hit German forces attempting to destroy German communication and transportation
After an entire day of fighting all of the beaches were secured and within one month over 1 million allied troops landed in France
The success of D Day opened the war to Paris, which the allies liberated in August
the germans were now fighting the dreaded two front war as the British and Americans were moving toward Germany from the west and SU was marching to Berlin from the east
Battle of the Bulge
Germans caught allies by surprise but allies began to bomb German positions so we set them back
V-E Day May, 1945
victory in Europe
1945 was the end of the war in Europe as Mussolini attempted to escape to Switzerland, but was caught by a group of Communists, executed, and then his body desecrated by the Italians in Milan in April
By April the Soviet Red Army was within 10 miles of Berlin and the Americans and British were just a little farther, but it was decided that the soviets would assault Berlin
The Battle of Berlin was a brutal fight as the Nazis were given orders to fight to the death
On April 30 Hitler realized he he was beaten and committed suicide after giving his final o order to never surrender, which the remaining Nazi leaders did on May 7, commemorated as V-E day
Harry S. Truman
took over for FDR when he died and oversaw the nation through final victory
Unfortunately, FDR did not live to see V-E Day because on April 12, 1945 FDR died on a cerebral hemorrhage
His vice president Harry Truman became the 33rd president
The US strategy of island-hopping, capturing some Japanese-held islands and ignoring others on the war to Japan was working very well for the American forces
Each time Americans landed on an island the Japanese fought them very hard, but each time the US emerged victoriously
Japanese pilots who deliberately crashed their planes into American ships
As Japan was facing more shortage of oil due to American gains in the Pacific the Japanese resorted to using kamikazes, pilots who deliberately crashed they planes into american ships
The Japanese would utilize kamikazes over 3,000 in the last year of the war with good results
General Douglas MacArthur
Gen. MacArthur and the US Navy began their attempt to retake the Philippines in October 1944 in the largest naval battle in world history
The battle lasted two days and the decisive American victory meant Japan was no longer abel to conduct attacks using their Navy as it all of their large ships were destroyed
American forces began landing on various islands in the Philippines
In September 1941 Albert Einstein sent a letter to FDR warning him the Germans were experimenting with weaponry which harnessed the energy released when atoms were split
FDR eventually heeded the warning and devoted billions of dollars and tens of thousands of scientists to develop the first atomic bomb under the codename Manhattan Project
As the first bomb was tested in July 1945 the lead scientists on the project
Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan
(little boy and fat man) US dropped atomic bombs on these Japanese places getting them to surrender
Emperor Hirohito and V-J Day surrender
After the second blast the Japanese government knew the end was near as the USSR was readying troops to attack the Japanese in China and the US threatened another atomic attack
On August 15, 1945 Japan announced they would surrender and on September 2, 1945 the official surrender occurred and the world collaborated VJ Day
Summarize the arguments for and against an Allied invasion of France before 1944.
force hitler to take resources and troops to defend the western front (away from SU)
there were too many German U boats
too expensive and risky
Was the D-Day Landing at Normandy, France on June 6, 1944 easy to accomplish? Explain.
yes because only two beaches were highly guarded
no because there were German bases and they spend 4 years fortifying that boarder
How did the Battle of the Bulge get its name, and what was the ultimate outcome?
the allies went backward so the line bulged out but didn't break
What was the fate of the following leaders: Mussolini, Hitler, Franklin Roosevelt
killed/hanged after losing power
brain hemorrhage before the war was over
surrenders but remains emperor
Describe the situation in Japan as the American forces got closer.
they prepared more troops, armed civilians, built defenses, started using kamikazes
What happened at Alamogordo, New Mexico on July 16, 1945, and how will this event affect the war against Japan?
they tested the first nuclear bomb and if 1 or two of them were dropped on Japan it would end the war
What effect do you think possession of the atomic bomb will have on the role of the United States in the postwar world?
become a superpower
only country with the most powerful weapon in the world
people will be scared
Yalta Conference ("Big Three)
the big three agreed that Poland, Bulgaria, and Romania would hold free elections but all need up communist
what is decided at Yalta Tehran and Potsdam
it was agreed that countries of eastern Europe would have free elections to determine gov.
decided to divide Germany and Berlin into spheres of influence
it was agreed to open up second front in Europe
a country that emerged from the war strong and dominated the post war world
GATT--General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
a treaty the US signed that was designed to expand world trade by reducing tariffs
United Nations (UN)
an organization that many hoped would succeed where the league of nations had failed
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
condemns slavery and torture and upholds freedom of speech and religion and affirms everyone had the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and his family
The axis powers constantly broke international laws and rules of conduct for war as laid down during the Geneva Conference, and international agreement governing the humane treatment of wounded soldiers and prisoners of war
the worst offenders tended to be the Japanese as they mistreated both wounded and prisoners routinely during the war
Over 1,000 Japanese citizens were tried following the war for breaking these international agreements and most were punished with jail time, but hundreds were sentenced to death, including Hideki Tojo but not Hirohito
The most public such trial occurred in Germany as Nazi officials were tried for their war crimes
the trials took place in Nuremberg, German so the trials are referred to as the Nuremberg Trials
The most common defense given by the Nazis was they were just following orders, but this defense fell on deaf ears as the top Nazi leaders were hanged and most others received prison sentences ranged from 4-8 years
What were the major immediate and long-term effects of World War II?
Europe and Japan lay in ruins
European colonies gradually gain independence
soviets dominate eastern Europe
cold war begins
America becomes a world power
AA's gain momentum to pursue civil rights
US remains a global superpower
US gov. plays a large role in guiding the nations economy
Identify one possible postwar consequence of the Allied disagreements at Yalta and Potsdam.
How did General MacArthur influence post-war Japan?
supervised the writing of a new constitution
abolished the armed forces except for purposes of defense
gave women the right to vote
enacted democratic reforms
established the groundwork for full economic recovery
Why do you think Americans supported participation in the UN after World War II when they had opposed participation in the League of Nations after World War I?
leading world power and thought it led to the rise of fascism it was based on cooperation; we went from being strict isolationists to world powers with responsibility for peace and democracy in the world
Summarize the key points of the section "A New American Identity" pp. 502-3.
defined ourselves as democratic, tolerant, and peaceful
only a few americans wanted to go back to isolationism
achieved global leadership
civil rights movement grew
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