World Oceans Ch. 8 & 9
Terms in this set (209)
which extends from the beach to the shelf break
intertidal zone (aka the littoral zone)
which is the part of the shoreline between high and low tides.
seaward of the shelf break; it is the bottom underneath the mesopelagic and bathypelagic zones of the pelagic province.
abyssal and hadal zones
deepest sea bottoms
The water column
which overlays the continental shelf
which is the deep water in the open ocean beyond the shelf break. It includes:
which is the surface layer illuminated by sunlight.
which lies beneath the epipelagic and is not reached by sunlight.
which lies beneath the mesopelagic
which extends down to 6000 meters.
Anything below 6000 meters, such as water in deep sea trenches
zone where sunlight can penetrate, allowing plants to perform photosynthesis.
contains very low levels of light
total and perpetual darkness
The taxonomic categories
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
archaea, bacteria, and eukarya.
prokaryotes, like bacteria, but are genetically very different. Include a group called extremophiles, which can live in extreme environments, such as hot springs, high salinity environments, and within thermal vents on the sea floor.
include organisms with a cell nucleus; this includes plants, animals, and fungi
Includes the bacteria, which are single-celled organisms with no cell nucleus.
They are involved in decomposition of organic matter and in synthesizing organic compounds dissolved in seawater.
Protista are single-celled eukaryotes (they have a cell nucleus). Foraminifera are common and important protists that provide food for other organisms; their shells also become part of deep sea sedimentary deposits.
Metaphytae are marine plants that can be free-floating (diatoms, dinoflagellates) or attached to the sea floor (red, brown, green algae).
Fungi are less diverse in the sea than on land, but they are quite common in the intertidal where they prevent algae from desiccating and function to decompose organic matter.
Metazoa are animals, invertebrates and vertebrates, which can inhabit the ocean.
organisms that drift or swim so weakly that they cannot counteract currents
includes actively swimming animals (birds, fish, marine mammals, etc.)
animals that are attached to, or move on or under, the sea bottom (plants, animals, bacteria).
live on sea bottom
live on sea bottom
those that live on the sea bottom
what is the most important characteristic that determines where organisms live?
what does temperature control?
rates of chemical reactions, thus affecting the biological activity of organisms.
Organisms in warm water regions
grow faster, reproduce more frequently, but do not live as long as organisms in cold water regions.
Distribution of marine organisms depends on
Benthic organisms that cannot migrate must be able to
withstand salinity changes
Organisms that live in the epipelagic region, which is more susceptible to seasonal changes in salinity, must be more
resistant to such changes than animals that live below the halocline (the mesopelagic zone) where salinity is more constant.
Fish generally have
cellular fluids with salinity lower than surrounding seawater, which causes water to diffuse out of their cells and into the environment through osmosis.
salt water fish
osmoregulate to avoid dehydration. They drink great amounts of water, urinate infrequently, and excrete excess salt ions (salt ions diffuse into the fish as water diffuses out).
must urinate frequently, drink little water, and absorb salt ions.
anatomically simple plants without true stems, roots, leaves, flowers, or seeds. Mostly phytoplankton
Why do the plants perform photosynthesis
to generate food, absorbing sunlight, water, carbon dioxide, and nutrients from the environment.
why do Phytoplankton remain in the photic zone
• They have small mass, thus settle downwards in the water column slowly.
• Their surface area is larger compared to their volume, which creates high frictional drag, further slowing settling.
• Some have pores or spines, or form chains, which further increases frictional drag.
What are diatoms
important single-celled algae encased in a silica-based frustule, which contains a "lid" (epitheca) and a "box" (hypo theca). Diatoms reproduce through cell division at rapid rates, which can create a plankton bloom. They are most common in colder waters.
another important single-celled algae, which used two flagella to propel themselves through the water. Most dinoflagellates have a cell wall (theca) composed of cellulose. Some live inside the tissues of animals, such as coral. They are most common in warmer waters.
microscopic crustaceans that feed on diatoms and zooplankton. They have specialized appendages to direct food to their mouths, and grow quickly. As copepods grow, they molt, replacing their outgrown shell with a new, larger one.
created a chambered shell of calcium carbonate with pores through which the animal extends its protoplasm to capture food.
fish must overcome three types of drag:
Surface drag, Form drag, Turbulent drag
On average, only about __________ of the energy in a trophic level will be transferred to the next level.
Nutrients are regenerated in the ocean by _______.
bacterial decomposition of dead cells and tissues
Limited supplies of ________ and ________ are the principal factors that limit primary production in the ocean.
In an El Niño year, near surface waters off Peru become _______.
warm and nutrient poor
At the center of large ocean circulation gyres, ________ causes water to converge and to downwell.
Calculations of primary production and the study of food transfer show that ________ and ________ regions produce the majority of the world's fish.
Biological productivity in polar seas tends to be limited by _________________.
Bacteria which can live without free oxygen are termed ______
A linear succession of members of an ecosystem based on nutritional relationships is called a _______.
Chemical substances that plants must have to live, but that are needed in only very small quantities are termed _______.
Plants may manufacture which of the following?
All organisms which require prefabricated food are termed ______
is a function of the volume of water that must be pushed aside by a moving body, which is a function of the body's cross-sectional area; the larger the area, the more water must be pushed aside. It can be minimized by adopting a cylindrical form.
drag is a retarding force that removes speed from a moving object. This can be minimized by adopting a tapered, torpedo-like shape.
What kind of tail does a rapid or dating moving fish have?
tail with broad surface area
What kind of tail does a fish have they they're trying to swim fast for a long period of time?
narrower surface area (due to minimal surface friction once in motion).
Plants and animals that live on the sea bottom are arranged in distinct bands, called ?
the topmost band occurs at spring high tide level, and consists mostly of cyanobacteria and snails. Next seaward is a band of barnacles, then a band of mussels and brown seaweed.
The biota living in the intertidal must be resistant to
desiccation, cold, and changes in salinity.
Infauna (burrowing organisms)
live in sandy or muddy bottoms. protected from predators, wave action, and desiccation, but must overcome the difficulties and dangers of burrowing through dense, abrasive sediment. Some dig with a muscular foot or head, or combine digging with propulsion using water currents.
Ecosystem operate by exchanging energy & matter
o Plants absorb energy from the sun, transforming inorganic matter into food.
o Herbivores consume plants and predators consume herbivores, thus organic matter and chemical energy are passed through the living part of the ecosystem.
o When predators die, bacteria and fungi decompose their bodies, returning organic matter to inorganic compounds which can again be synthesized into food through photosynthesis.
autotrophs, because they make their own food
other organisms that can't synthesize food themselves are?
heterotrophs, because they must obtain food from somewhere else.
Trophic dynamics is the study of
nutritional interconnections between different parts of the ecosystem.
Organism trophic levels:
plants (primary producers), moving through herbivores (second level) and carnivores (third and fourth level).
not usually linear
The amount of energy in each level decreases as you move up the pyramid, with primary producers at the base.
why do plants use photosynthesis?
to transform inorganic compounds into food.
Plankton blooms (population explosions)
occur whenever there is an abundance of light and nutrients.
all animals are?
The body size and weight of marine animals
increases proportionally as you move up trophic levels (with a few exceptions, like blue whales).
Scavengers search for
dead organic matter to consume.
how do filter feeders obtain food?
by filtering out suspended particles of organic matter in the water column.
The size of a population is usually directly proportional to
its food supply
what does bacteria offer zooplankton
Bacteria function to decompose
dead organic matter, releasing inorganic nutrients into the water for uptake by primary producers.
Why do species (bacteria) often work together?
to break down organic matter, either in concert or in succession
Aerobic bacteria require
oxygen in order to respire and decompose organic matter
Anaerobic bacteria can perform
decomposition in the absence of free oxygen (anoxia) by separating oxygen from other compounds in order to respire. *This produces hydrogen sulfide gas, which smells like rotten eggs (bottom of lake smell)
Extremophiles (which are Archaea, not Bacteria) are chemosynthetic
they synthesize food out of organic compounds using the oxidation of inorganic compounds as energy (instead of sunlight as it is used in photosynthesis).
the amount of living matter in a particular region.
Energy transferred up the
food chain is used by animals to reproduce and grow, thus increasing the biomass.
As you go up the chain, animals become larger and fewer in number
the greatest biomass exists at the bottom of the food chain. 90% of the energy is lost along the way.
factors that limit plant growth:
Solar Radiation, nutrient concentrations, Upwelling and Turbulence, grazing, water turbidity,
o Photosynthesis can occur down to the compensation depth, where light levels are reduced to about 1% of what they were on the surface.
o Solar radiation also warms water, which speeds up photosynthesis.
• Even though solar radiation is lower in the polar regions, net primary production is higher because of the elevated nutrient levels.
o Plants need a steady supply of nutrients in order to sustain food production.
o Macronutrients, compounds that contain phosophorus, nitrogen, and silicon, are required in large amounts. They are often the nutrients that limit plant growth.
• Nitrogen is a common limiting factor, because it takes longer to be produced by bacterial decomposition than phosphorus, and is needed by plants in greater quantities.
o Micronutrients are required only in small doses.
upwelling and turbulence
o Nutrient release by decomposition often occurs out of the photic zone, so upwelling and turbulence are important in bringing nutrients into the photic zone where plants can use them.
o Upwelling brings nutrient-rich water up to the surface.
o Storm waves and strong tides in coastal areas cause water turbulence, which mixes the water column and brings up nutrients from the sea bottom
Species of zooplankton feed on phytoplankton; zooplankton populations can explode during plankton blooms, only to crash when they have decimated the phytoplankton population.
Turbidity (from sediment) reduces the amount of light penetrating the water column, thus depressing primary productivity.
is the limiting nutrient in tropical waters.
Despite the high solar radiation in low latitudes, primary production is the
lowest in the ocean here because of the lack of nutrients in the water.
• Primary production in middle latitudes varies
strongly with the seasons
Weak sunlight limits productivity in winter, despite
high nutrient content
Diatom blooms occur in
spring with rising sunlight
intense grazing pressure, formation of a seasonal thermocline, and nutrient depletion slows primary productivity.
Productivity might increase a bit in the fall when
the thermocline weakens, thus allowing upwelling to replenish nutrients.
Polar seas are extremely productive
because of constant nutrient replenishment in the well-mixed water column.
Primary productivity is measured by
how much inorganic carbon is removed from the water.
distribution of productivity in each ocean resembles a
bullseye, with the least amount of production in the middle
Nutrients are not abundant in the open ocean
because of downwelling and a deep thermocline in the centers of ocean gyres.
Coastal regions tend to have
nutrient input from rivers and have well-mixed water columns, so have moderate productivity
The most productive regions of the ocean are coastal
o Biomass distribution of zooplankton (and that of benthic animals) mirrors that of
phytoplankton - where there is food, animals will be present
Since the biomass of animals is dictated by the
biomass of plants, we can estimate the amount of biomass of fish by measuring the rate of primary production.
Because food chains are longer and carbon transfer efficiency smaller in the open oceans, only a very small proportion of
fish biomass is found there - about 0.1 %. The rest is split evenly between upwelling zones and coastal regions.
One of the best-studied upwelling regions is
off the coast of Peru
The northward travelling Peru Current transports
a tongue of cold water from the south; prevailing southerly and southeasterly winds cause surface water to flow offshore, drawing cold, nutrient-rich waters to upwell from below.
The resultant primary production supports a very large population of
anchoveta, an important economical fishery for Peru.
During El Niño
warm waters intrude on the Peruvian shelf, diatom stocks plummet, and consequently so do anchoveta.
Scientists are investigating
o The promoting and limiting factors of primary productivity in a wide range of habitats.
o The role of picoplankton, mostly comprised of cyanobacteria, in overall primary productivity.
o The connections between dispersing dust storms in Africa and primary productivity, as well as in diseases of coral and humans in other parts of the world.
A/an ________ is the totality of an environment including the living and nonliving parts.
As a general rule, rates of biological activity of marine organisms double for every ______ increase in temperature.
Compared to organisms in tropical seas, those in polar seas _______.
live longer, produce less often
Floating and drifting plants in the oceans are referred to as _______
Form drag is proportional to the ________ of a fish's body.
In the open ocean, the farthest that sufficient light for photosynthesis can penetrate is _______.
Kingdom Chromista refers to _______.
Plants, free-floating or attached to the sea floor
Kingdom Monera includes _______
Long-bodied fish with high aspect ratios will be _______.
Marine fish osmoregulate by _______.
drinking large quantities of sea water
excreting excess salt ions through their gills
That part of the sea bottom which is sometimes exposed to the atmosphere is termed the _______.
The benthic zone that is between 2,000 m and 6,000 m is the ________ zone.
The "box" of a diatom's shell is called the __
The layer of the oceanic zone that extends from 6,000 m to the bottom of the ocean is called the ________ zone.
The parallel bands of plants and animals on the bottom of the ocean are termed __
The process by which molecules move from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration is called _______.
To sample a discrete patch of the sea floor, oceanographers can use a/an ___
Which of the following is a chordate?
Which of the following is a mollusk?
Which of the following is an arthropod?
Which of the following is an echinoderm?
Which of the following is sometimes referred to as the "twilight" zone?
the shallow areas overlying continental shelf areas can collectively be termed
the neritic zone
the bottom environments of the oceans are referred to as the ____ province
the study of interrelationships between the physical and biological aspects of an environment is
the waters of the ocean beyond the shelf break are called the ____ zone
which of the following is not a distinct subdivision of the open ocean
the region of the oceanic zone that extend from 1000m to 2000m is the _____ zone
the largest oceanic zone by volume is
the abyssal pelagic
the sublittoral generally is the environment of the
in the open ocean, the farthest that sufficient light for photosynthesis can penetrate
the ocean can be divided into _____ zones on the basis of illumination
the zone of the ocean where photosynthesis can be carried out effectively during daylight hours is the _____ zone
which of the following is sometimes referred to as the "twilight zone?"
the portion of the ocean that is in perpetual darkness is the _____ zone
the classification system used in this text is one developed by the swedish naturalist named
in the binomial system of classification orders of organisms are grouped together into
which of the following are always capitalized?
which of the following are never capitalized?
Kingdom Monera includes?
Kingdom Protista refers to?
simple celled organisms that possess a true nucleus
which of the following is not a member of the protista family?
In marine environments, fungi are most common in
the intertidal zone
Kingdom chromista refers to
plants, free floating or attached to the sea floor
Kingdom metazoa refers to
the role of ______ is to decompose organic matter
which of the following is a mollusk?
which of the following is a ctenophore?
which of the following is a chordate?
which of the following is an annelid?
which of the following is an echinoderm?
the term for all floating and drifting organisms is
the nekton include all
actively swimming animals
the bottom dwellers of the oceans are referred to as the
which of the following would be used to collect nektonic life?
plants that live on the sea bottom are termed
animals that live on the sea bottom are termed
a ______ is the totality of an environment including the living and nonliving
lines of equal temperature are called
as a general rule, rates of biological activity of marine organisms double for every ______increase in temperature
cold water has ____ nutrients as than warm water
the majority of marine plants grow in _______ water
compared to organisms in tropical seas, those in polar seas
live longer and reproduce less often
to develop successfully, the embryos of pacific cod require
a narrow temperature range
the process by which molecules move from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration is called
the diffusion of water molecules through a semipermeable membrane is called
most marine fish have cellular fluid with salinity
lower than salinity of sea water
marine fish osmoregulate by
drinking large quantities of water, excreting excess salt ions through their gills, and urinating unfrequently
freshwater fish have body fluids that are
saltier than the surrounding water
more than 90% of the oceans plants are
plants synthesize food chemically from inorganic matter in the process of
the green pigment of plants is called
many macro algae have root-like structures called
the shell of a diatom is called a
the lid of a diatom shell is called the
the "box" of diatom's shell is called the
the frustule of a diatom is composed of
the process of photosynthesis converts solar enegry into
primary producers are called
all organisms which require prefabricated food are termed
trophic refers to
the process of nourishing
which of the following are the primary producers?
which of the following would be found at the third trophic level or higher
a food web consists of a system of interconnected
plants may manufacture which of the following
carbohydrates, fats, proteins, nucleic acids
the reverse of photosynthesis is called
bacteria would generally be listed as
which is typically a grazer?
an example of a scavenger is
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