tongue tip makes a midline, or central, closure with the alveolar ridge, but an opening is maintained at the sides of the tongue
an allophone which the tongue assumes a bunched or humped shape close to the palatal region
liquids articulatory summary
sound energy from the vocal folds is directed through a distinctively shaped oral passage, one that can be held indefinitely for sustained production of the sound, if required. the velopharynx is always (or at least almost always) closed. the oral passageway is narrower than that for vowels but wider than that for stops, fricatives, and nasals.
two large respiratory organs inside the chest where blood picks up oxygen and loses carbon dioxide
has a vocal tract constriction somewhat narrower then that for vowels but less severe than that for stops and fricatives and is characterized by a gliding motion of the articulators from a partly constricted state to a more open state for the following vowel.
glides articulatory summary
the constricted state for the glide is narrower than that for a vowel but wider than that for stops and fricatives. the articulators make a gradual gliding motion from the constricted segment to the more open configuaration for the following vowel. the velopharynx is generally, if not always, closed. the sound energy from the vocal folds passes through the mouth, in a fashion similar to that for vowels. always followed by a vowel
a vowel-like consanant in which voicing energy passes through a vocal tract that is constricted only somewhat more than vowels. The shape and location of the constriction is a critical defining property, being distinctive for a given type of liquid.
complex sound that is the most difficult one to work on in therapy, due to the difficulty describing its place of articulation
A sound that is produced with a narrow constriction through which air escapes with a continuous noise
fricative articulation summary
Articulators form narrow constriction for airflow. Continuous frication noise is heard. Velopharynx is closed.
Combination sounds involving a stop closure followed by a fricative segment. Air pressure builds up during stop phase and is released as a burst of noise.
voiced lingua-palatal fricative; treasure, measure, pleasure; is the least frequently used of all sounds
a speech sound characterized by an intense, high-pitched noise; for example, the fricatives /s/ (see) and /ʃ/ (she).
a speech sound characterized by an intense frication noise, such as that heard for /s/ (see) and /ʃ/ (she).
voice onset time
the interval between an oral articulatory event (often the release of a stop) and the onset of voicing. If onset of voicing precedes the articulatory event, the sound is said to be prevoiced or to have a voicing lead, and if onset voicing follows the articulatory event it is said to have a voicing lag.
a condition of voicing, usually applied to obstruents, in which voicing or vocal fold vibration begins sometime before an articulatory event, such as a release of a constriction or onset of frication noise.
places of articulation
bilabial, interdental, palatal, glottal, labiodental, alveolar, and palatal-velar
Sounds regardless of where they are made, formed by a complete closure of the vocal tract, so that airflow ceases temporarily and air pressure builds up behind the point of closure.
1)Oral cavity is completely closed at some point for a brief interval. 2)velopharynx is closed. 3)Upon release of the stop closure, a burst of noise typically is heard. 4)Closing and opening movements for stops tend to be quite fast, usually the fastest movements in speech.
When impounded air is released, it produces a short burst of noise. Usually are about 5 to 20 milliseconds in duration.
flap, tap, or one-tap trill
A manner of articulation in which a sound is formed by a quick tapping movement of an articulator against a surface.
membranous tube with cartilaginous rings that conveys inhaled air from the larynx to the bronchi
produced with a complete oral closure, but the velopharynx is open, so that voicing energy travels out through the nose.
1)Oral tract is closed. 2)Velopharyngeal port is open to allow sound energy through nasal cavities. 3)Sound can remain if oral closure is broken
applications of phonetics in the clinic, including information about speech sounds and the perceptual skills used in phonetic transcription
two way scoring
a perceptual system in which speech sound productions are dichotomized into two classes representing typical versus atypical behavior (e.g., correct vs. incorrect, right vs. wrong, etc.)
five way scoring
a preceptual system in which speech sounds are classified as typical versus one of four error types: addition, deletion, substitution, or distortion
includes symbols to represent the consonants, diphthongs produced in a speecy sample.
includes symbols to represent both the target sounds ((consonants, vowels, and diphthongs) and symbols that describeslight variations in the production of target sounds
a speech production error in which a sound in incorrectly added (before or after) to another sound
a speech production error in which a speech sound is receognizable as the correct sound but is not produced exactly correct
the number of target sounds to be transcribed, which mayvary from only one sound toall sounds ocurring in a section of speech
a special symbol used to modify aphonetic symbol to indicate a particular modification of sound production
the part of linguistics concerned with the study of morphemes, the meaning-bearing elements of a language
a sound segment distinction by which two morphemes or words differ in pronunciation.
the opening between the oropharynx and nasal cavity, which can be closed to prevent the nasal transmission of sound