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lateral and rhotic

two types of liquids

lateral sound

tongue tip makes a midline, or central, closure with the alveolar ridge, but an opening is maintained at the sides of the tongue


voiced lingua-alveolar liquid


voiced lingua-palatal liquid


voiced lingua-palatal glide


voiced bilabial glide

lateral liquid


rhotic liquid



the term that denotes one complete cycle of respiration

retroflex /r/

an allophone which the tip of the tongue is turned up to point toward the palate

bunched /r/

an allophone which the tongue assumes a bunched or humped shape close to the palatal region

liquids articulatory summary

sound energy from the vocal folds is directed through a distinctively shaped oral passage, one that can be held indefinitely for sustained production of the sound, if required. the velopharynx is always (or at least almost always) closed. the oral passageway is narrower than that for vowels but wider than that for stops, fricatives, and nasals.


two large respiratory organs inside the chest where blood picks up oxygen and loses carbon dioxide


are always followed by vowels


has a vocal tract constriction somewhat narrower then that for vowels but less severe than that for stops and fricatives and is characterized by a gliding motion of the articulators from a partly constricted state to a more open state for the following vowel.

glides articulatory summary

the constricted state for the glide is narrower than that for a vowel but wider than that for stops and fricatives. the articulators make a gradual gliding motion from the constricted segment to the more open configuaration for the following vowel. the velopharynx is generally, if not always, closed. the sound energy from the vocal folds passes through the mouth, in a fashion similar to that for vowels. always followed by a vowel


/p/ /b/ /m/ /w/


/ʒ/ /j/ /ʃ/ /r/ /dʒ/ /tʃ/


a vowel-like consanant in which voicing energy passes through a vocal tract that is constricted only somewhat more than vowels. The shape and location of the constriction is a critical defining property, being distinctive for a given type of liquid.


complex sound that is the most difficult one to work on in therapy, due to the difficulty describing its place of articulation


A sound that is produced with a narrow constriction through which air escapes with a continuous noise

fricative articulation summary

Articulators form narrow constriction for airflow. Continuous frication noise is heard. Velopharynx is closed.


Combination sounds involving a stop closure followed by a fricative segment. Air pressure builds up during stop phase and is released as a burst of noise.

affricates articulation summary

Combination of a stop and a fricative. Velopharynx is closed.


voiceless lingua-dental fricative; theta, thing, birthday, thigh, path, breath


voiceless lingua-alveolar fricative; cats, sap, city, say, psalm, scent


voiced lingua-alveolar fricative; jazz, zap, buzz, is, sissors, asthma


voiceless lingua-palatal fricative; shoe, she, sugar, action, ocean


voiced lingua-palatal fricative; treasure, measure, pleasure; is the least frequently used of all sounds


voiced lingua-dental fricative; this, then, breathe, together, mother


voiced lingua-palatal affricate (also can be called palato-alveolar); judge, edge, gin


voiced labiodental fricative; vine, savy, of


voiceless labiodental fricative; fan, off, enough, half


voiceless glottal fricative; happy, who, her, head


voiceless lingua-palatal affricate; church, chew, righteous, cello, question, nature, mansion


components of the laryngeal system


only fricatives are formed here

pharyngeal, oral, and nasal cavities

components of the supralaryngeal system

respiratory, laryngeal, and supralaryngeal

three major functional systems of speech

lungs, rib cage, abdomen, and associated muscles

components of the respiratory system


opening between the vocal cords in the larynx


a speech sound characterized by an intense, high-pitched noise; for example, the fricatives /s/ (see) and /ʃ/ (she).


a speech sound characterized by an intense frication noise, such as that heard for /s/ (see) and /ʃ/ (she).

voice onset time

the interval between an oral articulatory event (often the release of a stop) and the onset of voicing. If onset of voicing precedes the articulatory event, the sound is said to be prevoiced or to have a voicing lead, and if onset voicing follows the articulatory event it is said to have a voicing lag.


a condition of voicing, usually applied to obstruents, in which voicing or vocal fold vibration begins sometime before an articulatory event, such as a release of a constriction or onset of frication noise.


a manner of articulation in which sound escapes around the sides of the tongue.

3 consanant articulation dimensions

Place of articulation, manner of articulation, and voice

place of articulation

where a sound is formed

manner of articulation

how a sound is formed


tells whether or not vocal folds are vibrating

places of articulation

bilabial, interdental, palatal, glottal, labiodental, alveolar, and palatal-velar

manners of articulation

Stop, fricative, liquid, glide, nasal, affricate a)lateral b)rhotic


voiced (vocal folds are vibrating) and voiceless (vocal folds are abducted)


ocurring after a vowel


ocurring before a vowel


Sounds regardless of where they are made, formed by a complete closure of the vocal tract, so that airflow ceases temporarily and air pressure builds up behind the point of closure.

stops-articulatory summary

1)Oral cavity is completely closed at some point for a brief interval. 2)velopharynx is closed. 3)Upon release of the stop closure, a burst of noise typically is heard. 4)Closing and opening movements for stops tend to be quite fast, usually the fastest movements in speech.

stop burst

When impounded air is released, it produces a short burst of noise. Usually are about 5 to 20 milliseconds in duration.

flap, tap, or one-tap trill

A manner of articulation in which a sound is formed by a quick tapping movement of an articulator against a surface.

bilabial, labial, and labio


lingual or lingua


velar or velo

velum (made by elevating the lingual dorsum until it contacts the roof of the mouth)


alveolar ridge (tongue tip to alveolar ridge)




palate (tongue meeting the palate)


epiglottis (sounds made in the back of mouth or vocal folds)


between the teeth

final position

the final position or segment ina word


membranous tube with cartilaginous rings that conveys inhaled air from the larynx to the bronchi


produced with a complete oral closure, but the velopharynx is open, so that voicing energy travels out through the nose.

nasals-articulatory summary

1)Oral tract is closed. 2)Velopharyngeal port is open to allow sound energy through nasal cavities. 3)Sound can remain if oral closure is broken


voiceless bilabial stop


voiced bilabial stop


voiced lingua-alveolar stop


voiceless lingua-alveolar stop


voiced lingua-velar stop


voiceless lingua-velar stop


bilabial nasal


lingua-alveolar nasal


lingua-velar nasal


glottal stop


the study of perception and production of speech sounds

clinical phonetics

applications of phonetics in the clinic, including information about speech sounds and the perceptual skills used in phonetic transcription

two way scoring

a perceptual system in which speech sound productions are dichotomized into two classes representing typical versus atypical behavior (e.g., correct vs. incorrect, right vs. wrong, etc.)

five way scoring

a preceptual system in which speech sounds are classified as typical versus one of four error types: addition, deletion, substitution, or distortion

phonetic transcription

use of symbols to represent the production of speech sounds

broad transcription

includes symbols to represent the consonants, diphthongs produced in a speecy sample.

narrow transcription

includes symbols to represent both the target sounds ((consonants, vowels, and diphthongs) and symbols that describeslight variations in the production of target sounds


a speech production error in which a sound in incorrectly added (before or after) to another sound


a speech production error in which a sound is omitted (also termed omission)


a speech production error in which a speech sound is receognizable as the correct sound but is not produced exactly correct

response complexity

the number of target sounds to be transcribed, which mayvary from only one sound toall sounds ocurring in a section of speech


one of the sound variants within a phoneme class, often used in specific phonetic context

diacritic mark

a special symbol used to modify aphonetic symbol to indicate a particular modification of sound production


a form of language spoken by people in a particular region or group


a mode of language expression based on sounds emitted through the mouth and nose


the unique characteristics of the language of an individual speaker


the smallest unit of language that has meaning


the part of linguistics concerned with the study of morphemes, the meaning-bearing elements of a language


in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.


the study of the structure and function of sounds in a language


passage of fluid and solid particles into lungs

monimal contrast

a sound segment distinction by which two morphemes or words differ in pronunciation.

initial position

the first position or segment in a word

medial position

a medial position or segment in a word


the bones of the skull that frame the mouth and serve to open it


voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords

nasal caity

the space between the nares (nostrils) and the entrance into the pharynx

oral cavity

the space between the lips and the entrance to the pharynx


sounds produced by the outflow of air


sounds produced with an inward flow of air

fundamental frequencey of voice

the basic rate of vibration of the vocal cords

hard palate

The hard front portion of the roof of the mouth and floor of the nasal cavity

soft palate

the soft-tissue structure that articulates to open or close the velopharynx

pharyngeal wall

the back wall of your throat


the "windpipe" that connects the lungs with the larynx

velopharyngeal port

the opening between the oropharynx and nasal cavity, which can be closed to prevent the nasal transmission of sound


Soft tissue hanging from the middle of the soft palate


open vocal folds


closed vocal folds

system complexity

This dimension of clinical phonetics has 3 levels. 2-way scoring, 5-way scoring, transcription.

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