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121 terms

Phonetics Midterm

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lateral and rhotic
two types of liquids
lateral sound
tongue tip makes a midline, or central, closure with the alveolar ridge, but an opening is maintained at the sides of the tongue
/l/
voiced lingua-alveolar liquid
/r/
voiced lingua-palatal liquid
/j/
voiced lingua-palatal glide
/w/
voiced bilabial glide
lateral liquid
/l/
rhotic liquid
/r/
hertz
the term that denotes one complete cycle of respiration
retroflex /r/
an allophone which the tip of the tongue is turned up to point toward the palate
bunched /r/
an allophone which the tongue assumes a bunched or humped shape close to the palatal region
liquids articulatory summary
sound energy from the vocal folds is directed through a distinctively shaped oral passage, one that can be held indefinitely for sustained production of the sound, if required. the velopharynx is always (or at least almost always) closed. the oral passageway is narrower than that for vowels but wider than that for stops, fricatives, and nasals.
lungs
two large respiratory organs inside the chest where blood picks up oxygen and loses carbon dioxide
glides
are always followed by vowels
glide
has a vocal tract constriction somewhat narrower then that for vowels but less severe than that for stops and fricatives and is characterized by a gliding motion of the articulators from a partly constricted state to a more open state for the following vowel.
glides articulatory summary
the constricted state for the glide is narrower than that for a vowel but wider than that for stops and fricatives. the articulators make a gradual gliding motion from the constricted segment to the more open configuaration for the following vowel. the velopharynx is generally, if not always, closed. the sound energy from the vocal folds passes through the mouth, in a fashion similar to that for vowels. always followed by a vowel
bilabials
/p/ /b/ /m/ /w/
lingua-palatal
/ʒ/ /j/ /ʃ/ /r/ /dʒ/ /tʃ/
liquid
a vowel-like consanant in which voicing energy passes through a vocal tract that is constricted only somewhat more than vowels. The shape and location of the constriction is a critical defining property, being distinctive for a given type of liquid.
/r/
complex sound that is the most difficult one to work on in therapy, due to the difficulty describing its place of articulation
fricative
A sound that is produced with a narrow constriction through which air escapes with a continuous noise
fricative articulation summary
Articulators form narrow constriction for airflow. Continuous frication noise is heard. Velopharynx is closed.
affricates
Combination sounds involving a stop closure followed by a fricative segment. Air pressure builds up during stop phase and is released as a burst of noise.
affricates articulation summary
Combination of a stop and a fricative. Velopharynx is closed.
/θ/
voiceless lingua-dental fricative; theta, thing, birthday, thigh, path, breath
/s/
voiceless lingua-alveolar fricative; cats, sap, city, say, psalm, scent
/z/
voiced lingua-alveolar fricative; jazz, zap, buzz, is, sissors, asthma
/ʃ/
voiceless lingua-palatal fricative; shoe, she, sugar, action, ocean
/ʒ/
voiced lingua-palatal fricative; treasure, measure, pleasure; is the least frequently used of all sounds
/ð/
voiced lingua-dental fricative; this, then, breathe, together, mother
/dʒ/
voiced lingua-palatal affricate (also can be called palato-alveolar); judge, edge, gin
/v/
voiced labiodental fricative; vine, savy, of
/f/
voiceless labiodental fricative; fan, off, enough, half
/h/
voiceless glottal fricative; happy, who, her, head
/tʃ/
voiceless lingua-palatal affricate; church, chew, righteous, cello, question, nature, mansion
larynx
components of the laryngeal system
Interdental
only fricatives are formed here
pharyngeal, oral, and nasal cavities
components of the supralaryngeal system
respiratory, laryngeal, and supralaryngeal
three major functional systems of speech
lungs, rib cage, abdomen, and associated muscles
components of the respiratory system
glottis
opening between the vocal cords in the larynx
sibilant
a speech sound characterized by an intense, high-pitched noise; for example, the fricatives /s/ (see) and /ʃ/ (she).
strident
a speech sound characterized by an intense frication noise, such as that heard for /s/ (see) and /ʃ/ (she).
voice onset time
the interval between an oral articulatory event (often the release of a stop) and the onset of voicing. If onset of voicing precedes the articulatory event, the sound is said to be prevoiced or to have a voicing lead, and if onset voicing follows the articulatory event it is said to have a voicing lag.
prevoiced
a condition of voicing, usually applied to obstruents, in which voicing or vocal fold vibration begins sometime before an articulatory event, such as a release of a constriction or onset of frication noise.
lateral
a manner of articulation in which sound escapes around the sides of the tongue.
3 consanant articulation dimensions
Place of articulation, manner of articulation, and voice
place of articulation
where a sound is formed
manner of articulation
how a sound is formed
voice
tells whether or not vocal folds are vibrating
places of articulation
bilabial, interdental, palatal, glottal, labiodental, alveolar, and palatal-velar
manners of articulation
Stop, fricative, liquid, glide, nasal, affricate a)lateral b)rhotic
voicing
voiced (vocal folds are vibrating) and voiceless (vocal folds are abducted)
postvocalic
ocurring after a vowel
prevocalic
ocurring before a vowel
stops
Sounds regardless of where they are made, formed by a complete closure of the vocal tract, so that airflow ceases temporarily and air pressure builds up behind the point of closure.
stops-articulatory summary
1)Oral cavity is completely closed at some point for a brief interval. 2)velopharynx is closed. 3)Upon release of the stop closure, a burst of noise typically is heard. 4)Closing and opening movements for stops tend to be quite fast, usually the fastest movements in speech.
stop burst
When impounded air is released, it produces a short burst of noise. Usually are about 5 to 20 milliseconds in duration.
flap, tap, or one-tap trill
A manner of articulation in which a sound is formed by a quick tapping movement of an articulator against a surface.
bilabial, labial, and labio
lips
lingual or lingua
tongue
velar or velo
velum (made by elevating the lingual dorsum until it contacts the roof of the mouth)
alveolar
alveolar ridge (tongue tip to alveolar ridge)
dental
teeth
palatal
palate (tongue meeting the palate)
glottal
epiglottis (sounds made in the back of mouth or vocal folds)
linguadental/Interdental
between the teeth
final position
the final position or segment ina word
trachea
membranous tube with cartilaginous rings that conveys inhaled air from the larynx to the bronchi
nasals
produced with a complete oral closure, but the velopharynx is open, so that voicing energy travels out through the nose.
nasals-articulatory summary
1)Oral tract is closed. 2)Velopharyngeal port is open to allow sound energy through nasal cavities. 3)Sound can remain if oral closure is broken
/p/
voiceless bilabial stop
/b/
voiced bilabial stop
/d/
voiced lingua-alveolar stop
/t/
voiceless lingua-alveolar stop
/g/
voiced lingua-velar stop
/k/
voiceless lingua-velar stop
/m/
bilabial nasal
/n/
lingua-alveolar nasal
/ng/
lingua-velar nasal
?
glottal stop
phonetics
the study of perception and production of speech sounds
clinical phonetics
applications of phonetics in the clinic, including information about speech sounds and the perceptual skills used in phonetic transcription
two way scoring
a perceptual system in which speech sound productions are dichotomized into two classes representing typical versus atypical behavior (e.g., correct vs. incorrect, right vs. wrong, etc.)
five way scoring
a preceptual system in which speech sounds are classified as typical versus one of four error types: addition, deletion, substitution, or distortion
phonetic transcription
use of symbols to represent the production of speech sounds
broad transcription
includes symbols to represent the consonants, diphthongs produced in a speecy sample.
narrow transcription
includes symbols to represent both the target sounds ((consonants, vowels, and diphthongs) and symbols that describeslight variations in the production of target sounds
addition
a speech production error in which a sound in incorrectly added (before or after) to another sound
deletion
a speech production error in which a sound is omitted (also termed omission)
distortion
a speech production error in which a speech sound is receognizable as the correct sound but is not produced exactly correct
response complexity
the number of target sounds to be transcribed, which mayvary from only one sound toall sounds ocurring in a section of speech
allophone
one of the sound variants within a phoneme class, often used in specific phonetic context
diacritic mark
a special symbol used to modify aphonetic symbol to indicate a particular modification of sound production
dialect
a form of language spoken by people in a particular region or group
speech
a mode of language expression based on sounds emitted through the mouth and nose
idiolect
the unique characteristics of the language of an individual speaker
morphemes
the smallest unit of language that has meaning
morphology
the part of linguistics concerned with the study of morphemes, the meaning-bearing elements of a language
phoneme
in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.
phonology
the study of the structure and function of sounds in a language
aspiration
passage of fluid and solid particles into lungs
monimal contrast
a sound segment distinction by which two morphemes or words differ in pronunciation.
initial position
the first position or segment in a word
medial position
a medial position or segment in a word
jaw
the bones of the skull that frame the mouth and serve to open it
larynx
voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords
nasal caity
the space between the nares (nostrils) and the entrance into the pharynx
oral cavity
the space between the lips and the entrance to the pharynx
eggressive
sounds produced by the outflow of air
ingressive
sounds produced with an inward flow of air
fundamental frequencey of voice
the basic rate of vibration of the vocal cords
hard palate
The hard front portion of the roof of the mouth and floor of the nasal cavity
soft palate
the soft-tissue structure that articulates to open or close the velopharynx
pharyngeal wall
the back wall of your throat
trachea
the "windpipe" that connects the lungs with the larynx
velopharyngeal port
the opening between the oropharynx and nasal cavity, which can be closed to prevent the nasal transmission of sound
uvula
Soft tissue hanging from the middle of the soft palate
abducted
open vocal folds
adducted
closed vocal folds
system complexity
This dimension of clinical phonetics has 3 levels. 2-way scoring, 5-way scoring, transcription.