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Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 19

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Plasma
liquid part of blood
91% water 9% proteins, ions, nutrients, gases, waste products, and regulatory substances
Colloid
liquid containing suspended substance that do not settle out of solution
Albumin
makes up 58% of plasma proteins and is important in regulating the movement of water between the tissues and the blood
Globulins
account for 38% of plasma
Fibrinogen
constitutes 4% of plasma proteins and is responsible for the formation of blood clots
Serum
plasma without clotting factors
Formed Elements
RBC's (95%), WBC's and platelets (5%).
Hematopoeisis
process of blood cell production
Hemocytoblasts
stems cells which produce the formed elements of blood
Proerythroblasts
blood cells that develop RBC's
Myeloblasts
blood cells that develop basophils, eosinophils, and neutrophils
Lymphoblasts
blood cells that develop monocytes
Megakaryotes
blood cells that develop platelets
Red Blood Cells
erythrocytes, 700x more than WBC's. 17x more than platelets.
males:5.4 million
females:4.8 million

7.5 micrometers in diameter. biconcave
Hemoglobin
pigmented protein, occupies one third of cell volume, gives red color
Hemolysis
red blood cell rupture followed by hemoglobin release
Globin
polypeptide chain bound to one heme
Heme
red pigmented molecule containing iron atom
Oxyhemoglobin
oxygenated form of hemoglobin
Deoxyhemoglobin
hemoglobin containing no oxygen
Carbaminohemoglobin
carbon dioxide attached to a hemoglobin
Carboxyhemoglobin
carbon dioxide hemoglobin attached with iron
Erythropoiesis
process by which new RBC's are produced
Proerythroblasts
stem cells from which all blood cells originate
Early (basophilic) Erythroblasts
next step after proerythroblasts, after mitotic divisions
Intermediate (polychromatic) Erythroblasts
next after early
Late Erythroblast
next step
Reticulocytes
immature RBC's with no nucleus
Erythropoietin
glycoprotein hormone produced by the kidneys stimulatin bine marrow to produce RBC's by increasing the number of proerythroblasts
Macrophages
located in spleen, liver, and lymphatic tissue take up hemoglobin released from ruptured RBC's.
Biliverdin
non iron part of the heme group
Bilirubin
converted from biliverdin released into plasma
Free Bilirubin
bilirubin binded albumin taken up by liver cells
Conjugated Bilirubin
free bilirubin joined to glucuronic acid, more water soluble
Bile
the fluid secreted from the liver into the small intestine
Jaundice
yellowish staining of skin and sclerae of eyes caused by buildup of bile
WBC
leukocytes, form thin white layer of cells between plasma and RBC's, lack hemoglobin but have nucleus
Granulocytes
white blood cells with large cytoplasmic granules and lobed nuclei
Neutrophil
granulocyte stain with acidic dyes, up to five nucleus
Eosinophil
stain red, few nucleus
Basophil
stain purple, nucleus hidden by granules
Agranulocytes
WBC's that appear to have no granules
Lymphocytes
nucleus takes up all cytoplasm, cytoplasm barely visible
Monocytes
kidney shaped nuclei, largest WBC,
Ameboid Movement
moving like ameba, how WBC's move
Diapedesis
WBC leave circulation and enter tissues, become thin and elongated and slip between or through cells of blood vessel walls
Chemotaxis
WBC being attracted to foreign materials or dead cells within tissues
Lysozymes
released from neutrophils to destroy certain bacteria
Histamine
in basophils, released into tissues to increase inflammation
Heparin
in basophils, released to inhibit blood clotting
B Cells
stimulated by bacteria or toxins to divide and form cells that produce proteins called antibodies
Antibodies
attach to bacteria and destroy them
T Cells
protect against viruses and other intracellular microorganisms by attacking and destroying the cells in which they are found, involved in the destruction of tumor cells and in tissue graft rejections
Platelets
thrombocytes, minute fragments of cells consisting of a small amount of cytoplasm surrounded by a plasma membrane
Megakaryocytes
produce platelets, extremely large cells
Hemostasis
stoppage of bleeding
Vascular Spasm
the immediate but temporary constriction of a blood vessel that results when smooth muscle within the wall of the vessel contract
Thromboxanes
released from platelets during the formation of a platelet plug
Endothelin
peptide released from endothelial cells
Platelet Plug
accumulation of platelets that can seal small breaks in blood vessels
Platelet Adhesion
occurs when platelets bind to collagen exposed by blood vessel damafe
von Willebrand Factor
protein produced and secreted by blood vessel and endothelial cells
Platelet Release Reaction
activation of platelets attached to collagen
Platelet Aggregation
fibrinogen forms a bridge between the fibrinogen receptors of different platelets resulting in a platelet plug
Coagulation
blood clotting
Blood Clot
network of threadlike protein fibers
Fibrin
protein fibers that trap blood cells, platelets, and fluid
Clotting Factors
factors which determine the ability to form a clot
Thromboplastin
mixture of lipoproteins and phospholipids released from damaged tissues
Prothrombinase
activates factor x, factor v, platelet phospholipids, and ca2+
Prothrombin
converts into enzyme thrombin
Anticoagulants
prevent clotting factors
Antithrombin
plasma protein produced by liver to inactivate thrombin
Prostacyclin
prostaglandin derivative produced by endothelial cells
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid
sodium citrate, prevents blood clotting
Clot Retraction
when a clot begins to condense into a denser compact structure
Serum
fluid squeezed out of a clot during retraction
Fibrinolysis
processes that dissolves the clot
Plasmin
enzyme that hydrolyzes fibrin
Transfusion
the transfer of blood or blood components
Infusion
introduction of a fluid other than blood such as saline or glucose solution into blood
Antigens
molecules on the surface of RBC's
Antibodies
proteins in the plasma
Agglutination
clumping of the RBC's
Aggulitnogens
antigen antibody combination that cause agglutination
Agglutinins
antibodies that cause agglutination
Blood Groups
antigens on the surface or RBC's
ABO Blood Group
system used to categorize human blood based on the presence or absence of ABO antigens on the surface RBC's
Donor
person giving blood
Recipient
person receiving
Rh Blood Group
named for the Rhesus monkey, blood containing Rh antigen
Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn
when the mother is Rh negative and baby is Rh positive, if baby blood leaks through placenta, then the mother begins producing Rh antibodies which then cross through the placenta and causes agglutination and hemolysis of fetal RBC's
Blood Typing
finding the antigens on blood
Crossmatch
donors blood cells are mixed with the recipients serum and the donors serum to see if agglutination occurs
Complete Blood Count
analysis of blood
Red Blood Count
number of RBC's
Hemoglobin Measurement
determines the amount of hemoglobin in a given volume of blood
Hematocrit
percentage of the total blood volume that is comprimised of RBC's
Erythrocytosis
overabundance of red blood cells
Buffy Coat
WBC's and platelets form a thin whitish layer between plasma and RBC's
Normocytes
normal sized blood cells
Microcytes
smaller than normal
Macrocytes
larger than normal
White Blood Count
measures the total number of WBC's in blood
Leukopenia
lower than normal WBC resulting from depression or destruction of red marrow
Leukocytosis
abnormally high WBC
Leukemia
cancer of red marrow often results in leukocytosis but WBC's have abnormal structure and function
Differential White Blood Count
percentage of the five kinds of WBC
neutrophils:60-70%
lymphocytes:20-30%
monocytes:2-8%
eosinophils:1-4%
basophils:.5-1%
Platelet Count
250,000-400,000 per microliter
Thrombocytopenia
platelet count is greatly reduced resulting in chronic bleeding through small vessels and capillaries
Prothrombin TIme Measurement
expresses how long it takes for the blood to start clotting, normally 9-12 seconds