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covalent bond

a chemical bond that results from the sharing of electrons between atoms


forms when two or more atoms covalently bond and is lower in potential energy than its constituent atoms

diatomic molecules (list)


Lewis structure

a model that uses electron-dot structures to show how electrons are arranged in molecules
(pairs of dots or lines represent bonding pairs or electrons)

bond length

the distance between two bonded nuclei at the position of maximum attraction

bond dissociation energy

the amount of energy required to break a specific covalent bond (always positive)

sigma bond

a single covalent bond that is formed when an electron pair is shared by the direct overlap of bonding orbitals

pi bond

a bond that is formed when parallel orbitals overlap to share electrons

multiple bonds

the sharing of more than one pair of electrons between two atoms (CONS)

oxidation number

the positive or negative charge of a monatomic ions

resonance structures

condition that occurs when more than one valid Lewis structure exists for the same molecule

VESPR model

Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion model, which is based on an arrangement that minimizes the repulsion of shared and unshared pairs of electrons around the central atom

geometry (shapes) of molecules

refers to the position of atoms; determined by the number of electron clouds


a process in which atomic orbitals are mixed to form new, identical hybrid orbitals

non-polar covalent bond

a type of bond that forms when electrons are shared equally between the two atoms

polar covalent bond

a type of bond that forms when electrons are not shared equally between the two atoms

inter-molecular forces (van der waals forces)

the attraction between individual molecules in a covalent bond (weak)

dipole forces

the attractive forces caused by dipole moments (separation of charge; opposite poles) between polar molecules

Hydrogen bonding

"strongest of the weak"
special dipole forces of attraction between hydrogen and very electronegative elements of F, O, and N only

ionic compound naming

(reverse crisscross)
1. name the cation first and the anion second
2. monatomic cations use the element name
3. monatomic ions take their name from the root of the element name plus the suffix -ide
4. to distinguish between multiple oxidation numbers of the same element, the name of the chemical formula must indicate the oxidation number of the cation. the oxidation number is written as a Roman numeral in parentheses after the name of the cation (Stock System).
5. if the compound contains a polyatomic ion, simply name the ion
6. in binary/tertiary compounds, write the formula in the smallest ratio possible (empirical formula)

ammonia (chemical formula)


methane (chemical formula)


covalent network solids

atoms that are interconnected by a network of covalent bonds:
Diamond (C) and Quartz (SiO2)

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