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naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals and organic matter; important natural resource
how rocks are broken down into fragments, through water, wind, ice and heat; the fragments formed are sediment
process by which wind, water, ice or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another
process in which sediment moved by erosion is dropped and comes to rest; sediment is found in bodies of water and other low-lying areas.
formed from grains of sand and other sediment from hills/mountains washed to the ocean; layers of sediment compact together and from sedimentary rock-formed through deposition and pressure
a result of when rock partially or completely melts; when in contact with metamorphic rock, the rock melts and becomes part of magma
hot liquid rock or magma that cools and solidifies; formed through heat when pressure is released and rises to the Earth's surface
quality of a rock that is based on the sizes, shapes and positions of the rock's grains; can tell how and were the rock is formed
the lighter colored rocks are less dense and called Felsic Rocks/ Mafic Rocks are dark colored rocks
intrusive igneous rock
a result of magma pushing into surrounding rock; has a course-grained texture; forms large visible crystals
plutons - large, irregular-shaped intrusive bodies
batholiths - largest igneous intrusions
stocks - smaller igneous intrusions
types of sedimentary rock
forms at or near Earth's surface
Clastic - forms when rock or mineral fragments called clasts are cemented together
ex. conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone shale
Chemical - when minerals crystallize out of a solution, such as sea water to become rock
Organic - forms from the remains of once-living plants and animals
ex. fossils, coral, coal
visible markings brought on by the motion of wind and water waves of lakes, ocean, rivers and sand dunes
formed when fine-grained sediments at the bottom of a shallow body of water are exposed to the air dry out; the cracks show the locations of former lakes, streams, or ocean shorelines
Types of Metamorphic Rocks
contact - when heated by nearby magma; occurs near igneous intrusions
regional - build up of pressure below other rock formations or when large pieces collide
foliated - when the mineral grains are arranged in planes or bands
non-foliated - minearl grains that are not arranged in planes or bands
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