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31 terms

Rocks: Minerals Mixtures - Chapter 4

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rock
naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals and organic matter; important natural resource
rock cycle
process by which new rock forms from old rock materials
weathering
how rocks are broken down into fragments, through water, wind, ice and heat; the fragments formed are sediment
erosion
process by which wind, water, ice or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another
deposition
process in which sediment moved by erosion is dropped and comes to rest; sediment is found in bodies of water and other low-lying areas.
uplift
movement within Earth that causes rock inside Earth to move to surface
Sedimentary rock
formed from grains of sand and other sediment from hills/mountains washed to the ocean; layers of sediment compact together and from sedimentary rock-formed through deposition and pressure
Metamorphic rock
intense heat and pressure squeezes sedimentary rock to this type of rock
magma
a result of when rock partially or completely melts; when in contact with metamorphic rock, the rock melts and becomes part of magma
Igneous rock
hot liquid rock or magma that cools and solidifies; formed through heat when pressure is released and rises to the Earth's surface
sediment
a result of weather igneous rock that is deposited, starting the cycle all over again
Rocks identity
is changed over time, heat, pressure, weathering and erosion
Rock composition
minerals a rock contains; chemical makeup of a rock
Rock texture
quality of a rock that is based on the sizes, shapes and positions of the rock's grains; can tell how and were the rock is formed
rock density
the lighter colored rocks are less dense and called Felsic Rocks/ Mafic Rocks are dark colored rocks
intrusive igneous rock
a result of magma pushing into surrounding rock; has a course-grained texture; forms large visible crystals
plutons - large, irregular-shaped intrusive bodies
batholiths - largest igneous intrusions
stocks - smaller igneous intrusions
dikes
sheetlike intrusions that cut across previous rock units
sills
sheetlike intrusions that are parallel to previous rock units
extrusive igneous rock
forms from magma that erupts (volcanic activity) onto Earth's surface
sand
product of weather which breaks rock into pieces
sandstone
compacted or compressed sand that turns into sedimentary rock
types of sedimentary rock
forms at or near Earth's surface
Clastic - forms when rock or mineral fragments called clasts are cemented together
ex. conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone shale
Chemical - when minerals crystallize out of a solution, such as sea water to become rock
ex. halite
Organic - forms from the remains of once-living plants and animals
ex. fossils, coral, coal
strata
another word for layers
stratification
process in which sedimentary rock are arranged in layers
ripple marks
visible markings brought on by the motion of wind and water waves of lakes, ocean, rivers and sand dunes
mud cracks
formed when fine-grained sediments at the bottom of a shallow body of water are exposed to the air dry out; the cracks show the locations of former lakes, streams, or ocean shorelines
Types of Metamorphic Rocks
contact - when heated by nearby magma; occurs near igneous intrusions
regional - build up of pressure below other rock formations or when large pieces collide
index minerals
metamorphic minerals that form at certain temperatures and pressures
metamorphic textures
foliated - when the mineral grains are arranged in planes or bands
ex. slate
non-foliated - minearl grains that are not arranged in planes or bands
recrystallization
minerals change
deformation
a change in the shape of a rock caused by a force placed on it