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King of the Franks from 768 to 814; united much of France, Germany, and northern Italy in one Frankish empire; crowned Emperor of the Roman people in 800

Papal States

territories in central Italy controlled by the pope


title of nobility; in Charlemagne's empire, chosen officials who ruled parts of the empire in his name


the guidance of ships from place to places


long stories about great Icelandic heroes and events

Leif Eriksson

Norwegian explorer; he led a group of Vikings to North America and settled on the eastern shore of modern-day Canada


in medieval Europe, nobles who were members of a lord's heavily armored cavalry


grant of land from a lord to a vassal


in medieval Europe, a person granted land from a lord in return for services

feudal system

a political and social system based on the granting of land in exchange for loyalty, military assistance, and other services


the loyalty owed by a vassal to his feudal lord

manorial system

an economic system in the Middle Ages that was built around large estates called manors


peasants who were legally bound to their lord's land

Alfred the Great

King of Wessex from 871 to 899; defeated Danish invaders and united Anglo-Saxon England under his control; compiled a code of laws and promoted learning

William the Conqueror

king of England from 1060 to 1087; powerful French noble who conquered England and brought feudalism to England

Domesday Book

written record of England landowners and their property made by order of William the Conqueror

Eleanor of Aquitaine

queen of France and England; one of the most powerful women in Europe during the Middle Ages

Magna Carta

a charter agreed to by King John of England that granted nobles certain rights and restricted the king's powers


the governing body of England

Hugh Capet

king of France from 987 to 996; elected by Frankish nobles to succeed King Louis V, he founded the Capetian dynasty, which ruled France for 300 years

Otto the Great

king of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor; defeated the Magyar army, which ended the Magyar raids in the mid-900s


the effort of Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain


devotion to one's religion


papal term in office

Pope Gregory VII

Roman Catholic pope; his assertion of church power to appoint bishops led him into conflict with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV, who claimed the powers for himself

Henry IV

king of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor; excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII over bishop appointments; acknowledged pope's authority and was readmitted to the church

Charles Martel

political adviser and ware leader for the Frankish king who led the Frankish army in many crushing defeats of their opponents; Charlemagne's grandfather

Pippin III

1st king of Carolingian dynasty; Charlemagne's father

Pope Leo III

called on Charlemagne's help when the Lombards attacked the Papal States; as thanks, he named Charlemagne Emperor of the Roman People

King John

English king to agreed to the Magna Carta

Henry II

English king who married Eleanor of Aquitaine

Edward I

one of the 1st kings to clarify the role of Parliament and to work effectively with this new governing body

Pope John XII

pope who turned to Otto the Great when the nobles turned against him; named Otto Emperor of the Romans

Leo IX

1st of a series of clever and capable pope dedicated to reforming the papacy

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