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King of the Franks from 768 to 814; united much of France, Germany, and northern Italy in one Frankish empire; crowned Emperor of the Roman people in 800
title of nobility; in Charlemagne's empire, chosen officials who ruled parts of the empire in his name
Norwegian explorer; he led a group of Vikings to North America and settled on the eastern shore of modern-day Canada
a political and social system based on the granting of land in exchange for loyalty, military assistance, and other services
an economic system in the Middle Ages that was built around large estates called manors
Alfred the Great
King of Wessex from 871 to 899; defeated Danish invaders and united Anglo-Saxon England under his control; compiled a code of laws and promoted learning
William the Conqueror
king of England from 1060 to 1087; powerful French noble who conquered England and brought feudalism to England
written record of England landowners and their property made by order of William the Conqueror
Eleanor of Aquitaine
queen of France and England; one of the most powerful women in Europe during the Middle Ages
a charter agreed to by King John of England that granted nobles certain rights and restricted the king's powers
king of France from 987 to 996; elected by Frankish nobles to succeed King Louis V, he founded the Capetian dynasty, which ruled France for 300 years
Otto the Great
king of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor; defeated the Magyar army, which ended the Magyar raids in the mid-900s
Pope Gregory VII
Roman Catholic pope; his assertion of church power to appoint bishops led him into conflict with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV, who claimed the powers for himself
king of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor; excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII over bishop appointments; acknowledged pope's authority and was readmitted to the church
political adviser and ware leader for the Frankish king who led the Frankish army in many crushing defeats of their opponents; Charlemagne's grandfather
Pope Leo III
called on Charlemagne's help when the Lombards attacked the Papal States; as thanks, he named Charlemagne Emperor of the Roman People
one of the 1st kings to clarify the role of Parliament and to work effectively with this new governing body
Pope John XII
pope who turned to Otto the Great when the nobles turned against him; named Otto Emperor of the Romans
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