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43 terms

Chapter 12 DNA and RNA

all of chapter 12 highschool biology for dna and rna
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transformation
process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another strain of bacteria
bacteriophage
virus that infects bacteria
nucleotide
monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
base pairing
principle that bonds in DNA can form only between adenine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine
chromatin
granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins
histone
protein molecule around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin
replication
copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA
DNA polymerase
enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule
gene
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
messenger RNA
RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell
ribosomal RNA
type of RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes
transfer RNA
type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis
transcription
process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence in RNA
RNA polymerase
enzyme similar to DNA polymerase that binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands during transcription
promoter
region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA
intron
sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein
exon
expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein
codon
three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid
translation
decoding of a mRNA message into a polypeptide chain
anticodon
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
mutation
change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information
point mutation
gene mutation involving changes in one or a few nucleotides
frameshift mutation
mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
polyploidy
condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes
operon
group of genes operating together
operator
region of chromosomes in an operon to which the repressor binds when the operon is "turned off"
differentiation
process in which cells become specialized in structure and function
hox gene
series of genes that controls the differentiation of cells and tissues in an embryo
scientist that isolated two different strains of pneumonia and grew them in culture plates then injected each strain into mice then killed the deadly strain with heat then injected it into mice once again was...
Frederick Griffith
when Griffith mixed the harmless strain of bacteria with the heat-killed deadly strain together and injected it into mice and killed the mice the reasoning for this was...
transformation
Avery and other scientists discovered that the ---------- stores and transmits the genetic information from one generation of an organism to the next
nucleic acid DNA
Hershey and Chase marked the protein coat of bacteriophages with...
radioactive phosphorus
Hershey and Chase marked the DNA core of bacteriophages with...
radioactive sulfur
What is the genetic material of the bacteriophage?
DNA
What are nucleotides made up of?
5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
What are the four nitrogenous bases?
adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine
what is the backbone of a DNA chain made of?
sugar and phosphate groups of each nucleotide
what is the shape of a DNA molecule?
double helix
what holds the two strands of DNA together?
hydrogen bonds
what do nucleosomes do?
they fold enormous lengths of DNA into the tiny space available in the cell nucleus
what are the three main types of RNA?
messenger RNA, transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA
What does RNA polymerase use one strand of DNA for?
as a template from which nucleotides are assembled into a strand of RNA
in RNA what takes the place of thymine?
uracil