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293 terms

Medical Terminology chap. 1-8

midterm
STUDY
PLAY
prefix
to fix before or to fix to
root
word or word element from which other words are formed
suffix
means to fasten on, beneath, or under
anti-
prefix,against
hyper-
prefix, above, beyond, excessive
hypo-
prefix, below, under, deficient
inter-
prefix, between
para-
prefix, beside, alongside, abnormal
peri-
prefix, around
per-
prefix, through
super-/supra-
prefix, above, beyond
-poiesis
suffix, formation
-rrhagia/-rrhage
suffix, to burst forth
-rrhea
suffix, discharge, flow
-scope
suffix, instrument for examining
-scopy
suffix, visual examination, to view, examine.
abcess
collection of pus
acute
sudden, severe,short
ambulatory
able to walk
antipyretic
an agent that is used to lower a body temperature
asepsis
without decay
biopsy
surgical removal of tissue for examination
chronic
a disease with little change or slow progression
etiology
study of the causes of disease
febrile
pertaining to a fever
malaise
a general feeling of discomfort, uneasiness
necrosis
abnormal condition of tissue death
prognosis
prediction of a course of disease and recovery rate
syndrome
signs and symptoms occurring together that characterize a disease
triage
prioritizing patient injuries to determine priority of need
Bx
Biopsy
Dx
diagnosis
bariatrics
prevention, control and treatment of obesity
cardiology
study of the heart
gastroenterology
study of the stomach and intestines
hematology
study of blood
nephrology
study of the kidneys
neurology
study of the nervous system
oncology
study of tumors
pathology
study of disease
pulmonologist
one who specializes in diseases of the lung
anatomy
the study of the structure of an organism
homeostasis
state of equilibrium
bilateral
two sides
unilateral
one side
medial
the middle or midline
lumbar region
middle lateral region, middle back
hypochondriac region
upper region, upper back
hypogastric region
lower middle below navel
epigastric region
region over stomach
transverse plane
or horizontal plane. any plane that divides body into superior and inferior (top and bottom)
sagittal plane
median plane. divides the body into right half, left half
anatomical position
Erect, Head facing forward, Arms by the side with Palms to the front.
inferior
below or in a downward direction
superior
above or in an upward direction
cephalic
pertaining to the head
proximal
nearest the point of origin; nearest the point of attachment
distal
farthest from the point of origin
ventral
the front side of the body, abdomen
dorsal
the back side of the belly
cavity
a hollow space containing body organs
apex
pointed end of a cone-shaped structure
visceral
body organ enclosed within a cavity, ie abdominal organs
cranial
pertaining to the cranium
superficial
on or near the surface
Abd
abdomen
A&P
anatomy and physiology
AP
anteroposterior
BP
blood pressure
CC
cardiac catherization, chief complaint, clean catch
DOB
Date Of Birth
GI
gastrointestinal
TPR
Temperature, Pulse, Respiration
Lat
lateral
RLQ, RUQ
right lower quadrant, right upper quadrant
LLQ,LUQ
left lower quadrant, left upper quadrant
PA
posteranterior, pernicious anemia
Ht
height
Wt
weight
Resp
respiratory
OTC
Over The Counter
HIPAA
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996``
abdomin/o
cf, abdominal
mast/o, mamm/o
cf, breast
bucc/o
cf, cheek
thorac/o
cf, chest
cubital
cf, elbow
gingiv, gingiv/o
cf, gums
cardi/o
cf, heart
hepat/o
cf, liver
pulmon/o, pneum/o
cf, lungs
umbilic
cf, navel
rhin/o
cf, nose
cost/o
cf, ribs
pharyng/o
cf, throat
lingu/o
cf, tongue
carp/o
cf, wrist
inguin, inguin/o
cf, groin
proxim, proxim/o
cf, near the point of origin
alopecia
hair loss
autograft
graft taken from one part of patient's body and transferred to another part of the body
candidiasis
infection of skin or mucous membranes
celluitis
acute inflammation of skin (little cell) , characterized by heat, swelling, redness, pain
debridement
removal of foreign material or dead tissue in a wound
decubitus
bed sores, an area of skin that becomes broken down
dehiscence
surgical complication where this is separation or bursting open of surgical wound
dermatitis
inflammation of skin
ecchymosis
blood seeps into skin causing discoloration
eczema
acute or chronic inflammatory skin disorder
erythema
redness of skin, capillary congestion
exudate
production of pus or serum
gangrene
the death of tissue or bone from absent blood supply to the area
hematoma
blood tumor
hives
eruption of itching and burning swellings on the skin
jaundice
yellow, excessive bile in blood from liver
keloid
overgrowth of scar tissue
lupus
skin lesions
melanoma
black tumor
mole
aka nevus. pigmented, elevated spot above surface of skin
pediculosis
lice.
petechiae
small, pinpoint purplish spots on skin
pruritis
severe itching
psoriasis
chronic redness, itching and thick dry scales on skin
purpura
purplish discoloration of skin
scleroderma
hardening of skin
seborrhea
excessive flow of oil from sebaceous glands
sebum
fatty or oily secretion produced by the sebaceous glands
subungal
below the nail
ulcer
open lesion or sore
urticaria
an itchy skin eruption characterized by weals with pale interiors and well-defined red margins
vitiligo
milk-white patches surrounded by normal pigmentation on skin
Bx
biopsy
FUO
fever of unknown origin
Hx
history
I&D
incision and drainage
Staph
staphylococcus
Strep
streptococcus
UV
ultraviolet
Burns:Superficial
first degree burn, outer layer of skin
Burns:Partial Thickness
second degree burn, epidermis, and upper layers of dermis
Burns:Full Thickness
third degree burn, all epidermis and dermis
Rule of Nines
method used to calculate the amount of fluid lost as the result of a burn; divides the body into 11 areas, each accounting for 9% of the total body area
ABCD's of Skin Cancer
Assymetry, Borders,Color,Diameter
Macule
freckles, flat, hyperpigmented lesions
Pustule
pus, pus-filled sac, chicken pox.
Wheal
localized elevation, hives
Papule
raised, solid, round with discrete border
Vesicle
blister, fluid filled sac
joint
a place where two bones connect. 3 types: synarthrosis, amphiarthrosis, diarthrosis
synarthrosis
fibrous, does not permit movement. cranial suture.
amphiarthrosis
cartilaginous. permits very slight movement. vertebra
diarthrosis
synovial. free movement. knee, hip.
abduction
moving away from the middle
adduction
moving toward the middle
dorsiflexion
bending a body part backward
extension
straightening a limb
flexion
bending a limb
pronation
lying face downward, turning palms down
supination
lying face upward, turning palms up.
arthralgia
joint pain
arthritis
inflammation of joint
arthroplasty
surgical procedure to repair joint
arthroscope
surgical instrument used to examine interior joint
carpal
wrist bones
carpal tunnel syndrome
compression of median nerve by carpal ligament
craniectomy
surgical excision of portion of skull
craniotomy
surgical incision made into the skull
femoral
pertaining to the thigh bone, femur
gout
form of acute arthritis, joint inflammation uric acid in blood
hallux
big or great toe
hydrarthrosis
accumulation of watery fluid in cavity of joint
intercostal
pertaining to the space between two ribs
kyphosis
condtion of back hump, back bending forward
lordosis
condition of back bending backwards.
myeloma
bone marrow tumor
orthopedics
the branch of medical science concerned with disorders or deformities of the spine and joints
osteoarthristis
inflammation of bone and joint; aging
osteoblast
bone-forming cell
osteoclast
cells that break down bone
osteogenesis
formation of bone
osteomyelitis
inflammation of bone marrow
osteoporosis
decrease in density of bones
polyarthritis
inflammation of more than one joint
rheumatoid arthritis
autoimmune disease inflammation of joints results in crippling deformations. not aging.
scoliosis
abnormal lateral curve of spine
subclavicular
pertaining to beneath the collar bone
tendonitis
inflammation of tendons
traction (Tx)
process of pulling on bones or muscles to relieve displacement
X-ray
examination of bones using electromagnetic machine
DJD
degenerative joint disease
Fx
fracture
JRA
juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
NSAIDs
NonSteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
OA
osteoarthritis
PWB
partial weight bearing
RA
rheumatoid arthritis
RF
rheumatoid factor
ROM
range of motion
amputation
surgical removal of a limb
ataxia
lack of muscular coordination
atonic
pertaining to lack of normal muscle tone
atrophy
wasting of muscular tissue
contraction
process of drawing up and thickening of muscle fiber
contracture
muscle shortens and not able to stretch to normal again
flaccid
lacking muscle tone
hydrotherapy
water treatment
myoma
tumor containing muscle tissue
myopathy
muscle disease
myoplasty
surgical repair of muscle
myosarcoma
malignant tumor from muscle tissue
myositis
inflammation of muscle tissue
neuromuscular
pertaining to both muscle and nerves
prosthesis
artificial device used to replace a body part
rhabdomyoma
tumor or striated muscle tissue
Fowler's
patient sitting up with knees elevated
orthopneic
sitting upright or erect
prone
lying face downward
Sims'
lying on left side; right knee and thigh flexed above left leg, left arm behind body and right arm forwards flexed at elbow
supine
lying flat on back
Trendelenburg
body supine on bed head lower than feet
rotation
process of moving body part around a central axis
tendon
band of fibrous connective tissue attachment of muscle to bone
tetany
cramps, convulsions, caused by abnormality of calcium
AK
Above Knee
BK
Below Knee
EMG
ElectroMyoGraphy
FROM
Full Range Of Motion
IM
intramuscular
TBW
Total Body Weight
RICE
RestIceCompressionElevation
muscular dystrophy
progressive weakness and degeneration of voluntary muscles
digestions
process by which food is changed in the mouth, stomach, and intestines
absorption
process by which nutrients is transferred from GI tract to bloodstream
anorexia
lack of appetite
appendectomy
surgical excision of appendix
ascites
accumulation of fluid in peritoneal cavity
bowel
intestine
catabolism
condition of breaking down substances
cholecystectomy
surgical excision of gallbladder
cirrhosis
liver disease
colonoscopy
visual examination of colon
colostomy
creation of new opening into colon
constipation
infrequent passage of hard and dry feces
diarrhea
frequent passage of watery stools
duodenal
pertaining to the duodenum, first part of small intestine
dyspepsia
difficulty in digestion, aka indigestion
dysphagia
difficulty in swallowing
gastroesophageal reflux
muscle between esophagus and stomach is weak
hematemesis
vomiting of blood
hemorrhoids
mass of dilated veins in rectum
hepatitis
inflammation of liver
hernia
abnormal protrusion of organ through wall of body cavity that normally contains it.
hyperemesis
excessive vomitting.
H.Pylori
Helicobacter pylori, infection that has been increasingly recognized as being involved in the development of peptic ulcers
nausea
inclination to vomit
peristalsis
contractions that occur involuntarily in hollow tubes of body, especially the alimentary canal.
pyloric
opening between stomach and duodenum
stomatitis
inflammation of mouth
sublingual
below the tongue
vomit
eject stomach contents through mouth
barium enema
BE, administering Barium to rectum to determine the condition of the colon.
emesis
vomiting
epigastric
region above stomach
feces
body waste discharged from bowel by way of anus
flatus
the expelling of gas from anus
gastrectomy
surgical excision of part or or whole stomach
carcinoembryonic antigen
CEA, test performed on whole blood or plasma to determine the presence of CEA (antigens isolated from colon tumors)
occult blood
test performed on feces to determine GI bleeding
ova and parasites
O&P
stool culture
test performed on stool to identify the presence of organisms
ac
ante cibum, before meals
Ba
barium
BM
bowel movement
BRP
bathroom privileges
BS
Bowel sounds
E.coli
escherichia coli
GERD
GastroEsophageal Reflux Disease
IBS
Irritable bowel syndrome
NPO, npo
nothing by mouth
N&V
nausea and vomiting
pc
percutaneous endoscopic
PUD
peptic ulcer disesase
TPN
total parental nutrition
bid
twice a day
BP
blood pressure
c/o
complains of
PO
orally, by mouth
Barrett's esophagus
a precancerous esophageal disorder characterized by metaplastic cell changes.
Crohn's Disease
autoimmune disease that can affect any part of GI tract but most commonly occurs in ileum.
Hiatal hernia
hernia resulting from the protrusion of part of the stomach through the diaphragm
Inguinal hernia
hernia in which a loop of intestine enters the inguinal canal
irritable bowel syndrome
IBS, disease that interferes with normal functions of large intestine
ulcerative colitis
inflammation and ulcers in the lining of large intestine.