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electrically charged particles created when electrolytes separate in a solution; may be positively or negatively charged
positive & negative ions balance each other out, achieving a neutral electrical charge
stabilizes cell membrane, reducing its permeability; transmits nerve impulses; contracts muscles; coagulates blood; & forms bones & teeth
regulates cell excitability, nerve impulse conduction, resting membrane potential, muscle contraction, myocardial membrane responsiveness, & intracellular osmolality
influences enzyme reactions, neuromuscular contractions, normal functioning of nervous & cardiovascular system, protein synthesis, & sodium & potassium ion transportation
Influences on electrolyte balance
Normal cell function
Fluid intake & output
secrete parathyroid hormone, which draws calcium into the blood & helps move phosphorous to the kidneys for excretion
Hypothalamus & posterior pituitary
produce & secrete antidiuretic hormone causing water retention, which affects solute concentration
The effects of diuretics
Treat hypertension, heart failure, electrolyte imbalances, & kidney disease
Increase urine production
Insensible fluid losses
Ex: through the skin (affected by humidity & body surface area) & lungs (affected by respiratory rate and depth)
in the cerebrospinal column, pleural cavity, lymph system, joints, & eyes; remains relatively constant
form of passive transport that moves solutes from an area of higher concentration to an aea of lower concentration
uses ATP to move solutes from an area of low concentration to an area of higher concentration
passive movement of fluid across a membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an are of higher solute concentration
also known as vasopressin---produced by the hypothalamus to reduce diuresis & increase water retention if serum osmolality increases or blood volume decreases
If blood flow decreases, the juxtaglomerular cells in the kidneys secrete renin, which leads to the production of angiotensin II, a powerful vasoconstrictor
This hormone, produced & stored in the atria of the heart, stops the action of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; decreases blood pressure by causing vasodilation & reduces fluid volume by increasing excretion of sodium & water
Regulated by the hypothalamus--Stimulated by an increase in ECF & drying of the mucous membranes--Causes a person to drink fluids, which are absorbed by the intestines, moved to th bloodstream, & distributed between the compartments
molecules that can give hydrogen molecules to other molecules; include solutions with a pH below 7
blood pH is below 7.35 & either the hydrogen ion concentration has increased or the bicarbonate level has decreased
blood pH is above 7.45 & either the hydrogen ion concentration has decreased or the bicarbonate level has increased
Phosphate buffer system
reacts with acids & bases to form compounds that alter pH; especially effective in renal tubules
Functions as the 2nd line of defense
Responds to pH changes in minutes
Makes temporary adjustments to pH
Regulates CO2 levels in the blood
Make long-term adjustments to pH
Reabsorb acids & bases or excrete them into urine
Produce bicarbonate to replenish lost supply
Regulate bicarbonate production
Represents the level of unmeasured anions in extracellular fluid--Normally ranges from 8-14 mEq/L--Helps differentiate acidotic conditions
Signs & Symptoms of mild fluid loss
Orthostatic hypotension--Restlessness--Anxiety--Weight loss--Increased heart rate
Signs & Symptoms of moderate fluid loss
Confusion--Dizziness--Irritability--Extreme Thirst--Nausea--Cool, clammy skin--Rapid pulse--Decreased urine output
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