How many bones are found in the carpus and what does it form?
8 marble-sized bones that forms the true wrist (proximal region of the hand)
What shape are the carpus bones and what movements do they have between them?
Short bones that are roughly cuboidal that have gliding movements
What are the four bones in the proximal row of the carpus from lateral to medial?
Scaphoid, lunate, triquetral and pisiform
What are the four bones in the distal row of the carpus from lateral to medial?
Trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and hamate
How many metacarpals do we hand?
How are the metacarpals numbered?
from 1-5 starting with the pollex (thumb)
What do the metacarpals articulate with?
Proximally: the distal row of carpal Distally: the proximal phalanges
How are the phalanges numbered?
from 1-5 starting with the pollex (thumb)
How many phalanges does each finger have? How many does the thumb have?
three: proximal, middle and distal phalange two: proximal and distal phalange
What does the pelvic girdle attach to?
Lower limbs and spine
What does the pelvic girdle support?
The visceral organs
What helps attach the pelvic girdle to the axial skeleton?
What is the name for the socket at the hip joint?
What are the characteristics of the acetabulum?
deep socket allowing more stability and less flexibility more stable than arm and less freedom of movement than upper limb
what does the acetabulum articulate with?
Head of the femur
What are the three factrs that lead to stability at a joint?
1. muscles 2. ligaments 3. the way the bones shape is or how the two bones that meet fit together
The pelvic girdle consists of what paired bones?
Coxal (hip) bones
How do the coxal bones come together? and by what structure?
unite anteriorly by the pubic symphysis which is a specific type of joint
How does the pelvic girdle articulate and what does it articulate with?
posteriorly to the base of the sacrum
a deep, basin-like structure that is formed by the coxal bones, sacrum and coccyx
What three separate bones form the coxal bone?
illium, ishium and pubis
This bone is a large and flaring that forms the superior region of the coxal bone
Articulation of the ilium with the sacrum forms which joint?
What three bones contribute to the acetabulum?
ilium, ishium and pubis
This coxal bone is the place for most muscle attachment
This bones forms the posterioinferior region of the coxal bone
These are the strongest part of the hip bone (bones we sit on that are palpated through the gluts)
This boens form the anterior region of the coxal bones
The two pubic bones are joined by this fibrocartilage at the midline
The pelvic is rotated somewhat is which direction?
How are the pubi bones positioned anatomically?
Where is the pubic tubercle?
Anterior, inferior side of the coxal bone
What does a muscle do to a bone during contraction?
Exerts a force
What are the two regions of the bony pelvis?
true(lesser) and false(greater)
This region of the pelvis is bounded by alae of the iliac bone and is bigger
This region of the pelvis is inferior to the pelvic brim, forms a bowl containing the pelvic organs and is smaller
What are the two main differences between a male and female pelvis?
1. Pelvis is lighter, wider (acetabulum farther apart) and shallower 2. Provides more room in the true pelvis for childbirth
What is the coccyx like in a female pelvis?
More moveable for childbirth
What are the three segmnts of the lower limb?
Thigh, leg and foot
What does the thigh segment consist of?
hip to the knee
What does the leg segment consist of?
knee to the ankle
What does the foot segment consist of?
ankle, foot and toes
The single bone of the thigh
the longest and strongest bone of the body
How does the femur articulate with the acetabulum?
the ball-shaped head fits into the deep socket
Describe the saying "broke a hip" relating to osteoporosis
breaking the proximal end of the femur
Three projections on the femur for muscles to attach
trochanter, tuberosity and aspera
smooth rounded projections that articulate specifically with the tibia
medial and later condyle
projections that the abductor muscles of the thigh attach to
This bone is a triangular sesamoid bone imbedde in tendon of the quadriceps muscles
bone that is imbedded within a tendon
structure that connects muscle to bone
this bone has a mechanical mechanism that improves leverage of the thigh muscles across the knee
What two bones compose the leg
tibia and fibula
This bone of the leg is more massive, positioned medially and recieves the weight of the body from the femur
This bone of the leg is less massive, positional lateral and has little if any weight transmitted through it
This connects the tibia and fibula
What three bones form the knee joint?
Patella, femur and tibia
This bone articulate with the femur at the proximl end forming the knee joint
This bone articulate with the talus at the distal end forming the ankle joint
This bone does not contribute to the knee joint but stabilizes it
Lateral ankle bone on the distal end of the fibula
medial ankle bone
Where is the tibular-fibular joint found?
Both proximally and distally
What three bones compose the foot?
tarsus, metatarsus and phalanges
What are three important functions of the foot
1. supports body weight 2. acts as a lever to propel body forward when walking 3. segmentation makes foot pliable and adapted to uneven ground
How many bones are in the tarsus?
What half of the foot does the tarsus make up?
the posterior half
Which part of the foot is in contact with the ground and through which weight is transmitted through
How many bones are in the metatarsus?
5 small, long bones
How are the bones of the metatarsus numbered?
1-5 beginning with the hallux
What is significant about the big toe (hallux)
Support the body weight
How many bones are in the phalanges of the toes?
Why are the phalanges of the toes much smaller and less numbler than those of the fingers?
We are adapted to doing so many things with our hands therefore our toes are smaller. However, if we were to practice writing with our toes or doing things like we do with our hands we would be able to eventually accomplish almost all of the same things with both fingers and toes.
How manay phalanges do the toes have? what about the big toe?
three: proximal, middle and distal two: proximal and distal
This bone of the foot is the talar shelf
These projections on the foot are made for attachments
What are the three important arches of the foot?
Medial longitudinal arch, lateral longitudinal arch and transverse arch
Name two things that arches are maintained by
1. interlocking shapes of tarsals 2. ligaments and tendons
What are three disorders of the appendicular skeleton?
Bone fractures, hips dysplasia and club foot
This disorder is when the head of the femur slips out of the acetabulum
This disorder is when the soles of the feet turn medially
Name two things that other cultures have been known to do
Foot binding and head binding
Name two characterisitcs of the growth of the appendicular skeleton
Increase height changes body proportions
Name two changes that happen in the adult skeleton as we age
skeleton loses mass osteoporosis and limb fractures become more common