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Name two characteristics of upper and lower limbs in relation to one another.
1. Differ in function
2. Similar structural plan
What is unique about the pectoral girdle that is different than the pelvic girdle
The pectoral girdle is not like a true girdle that completely surrounds/encircles the body like the pelvic girdle is. This is because it provides more flexibility
Where does the pectoral girdle attach on the clavicle?
medially articulate with the sternum (manubrium) and first rib and laterally joins with the scapulae
What should we know about the scapulae?
They do not join each other or axial skeleton, (only the clavicle articulates with the axial skeleton)
Name two characterisitcs of the pectoral girdle
1. attachment for muscles for upper lim movement
2. It is very light and mobile with a glenoid cavity that is shallow and flat which allows good flexibility, poor stability
Name the four main muscle that attach to the clavicle
1. Pectoralis Major (chest muscle)
2. Trapezius (Back muscle)
3. Sternocleidomastoid (Neck muscle)
4. Deltoid (shoulder muscle)
What direction does the clavicle transmit compression forces?
from upper limbs to the axial skeleton
What is a common way to fracture you clavicle?
Fall with outstretched hands trying to catch yourself and the force comes up through the upper extremity which is not supposed to happen
What are the three borders and three angles of the scapulae?
Borders: superior, medial(vetebral) and lateral(axillary)
Angles: Lateral, Superior, inferior
What does the humerus articulate with proximally and distally?
Proximally: with the glenoid cavity (head) and scapula
Distally: Radius and ulna
projections on the humerus that are places of attachment for several shoulder muscles
great ad lesser tubercle
groove on the humerus for the radial nerve that supplies the posterior upper extremity
There are three of these on the humerus and they are used for the ulna to go into during full extension
What are the proximal and distal articulations of the forearm?
Proximal: ends articulate with the humerus
Distal: articulate wth carpals (wrist)
How many time do the ulna and radius articulate with one another and where?
Proximally and Distally 2 times
ligaments that run the entire length of the forearm that interconnect the forearm
As the elbow goes into flexion, the coranoid process will going into the what to help stabilize the joint?
the structure of which bone dictates the movemnet we achieve at the elbow (flexion and extension) why?
Ulna because the ulna is bigger on the proximal end located near the elbow joint and the radius is bigger on the distal end forming the wrist joint
On the proximal end of the ulna this fits around the trochlea which is the medial condyle of the humerus
What are the articulations of the radius proximally and medially
Medially: radial notch of the ulna
this bone contributes heavily to the wrist joint and why?
The radius because the distal radius articulates with the carpal bones and when the radius moves, the hand moves
How many bones are found in the carpus and what does it form?
8 marble-sized bones that forms the true wrist (proximal region of the hand)
What shape are the carpus bones and what movements do they have between them?
Short bones that are roughly cuboidal that have gliding movements
What are the four bones in the proximal row of the carpus from lateral to medial?
Scaphoid, lunate, triquetral and pisiform
What are the four bones in the distal row of the carpus from lateral to medial?
Trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and hamate
What do the metacarpals articulate with?
Proximally: the distal row of carpal
Distally: the proximal phalanges
How many phalanges does each finger have? How many does the thumb have?
three: proximal, middle and distal phalange
two: proximal and distal phalange
What are the characteristics of the acetabulum?
deep socket allowing more stability and less flexibility
more stable than arm and less freedom of movement than upper limb
What are the three factrs that lead to stability at a joint?
3. the way the bones shape is or how the two bones that meet fit together
How do the coxal bones come together? and by what structure?
unite anteriorly by the pubic symphysis which is a specific type of joint
How does the pelvic girdle articulate and what does it articulate with?
posteriorly to the base of the sacrum
These are the strongest part of the hip bone (bones we sit on that are palpated through the gluts)
This region of the pelvis is inferior to the pelvic brim, forms a bowl containing the pelvic organs and is smaller
What are the two main differences between a male and female pelvis?
1. Pelvis is lighter, wider (acetabulum farther apart) and shallower
2. Provides more room in the true pelvis for childbirth
this bone has a mechanical mechanism that improves leverage of the thigh muscles across the knee
This bone of the leg is more massive, positioned medially and recieves the weight of the body from the femur
This bone of the leg is less massive, positional lateral and has little if any weight transmitted through it
What are three important functions of the foot
1. supports body weight
2. acts as a lever to propel body forward when walking
3. segmentation makes foot pliable and adapted to uneven ground
Which part of the foot is in contact with the ground and through which weight is transmitted through
Why are the phalanges of the toes much smaller and less numbler than those of the fingers?
We are adapted to doing so many things with our hands therefore our toes are smaller. However, if we were to practice writing with our toes or doing things like we do with our hands we would be able to eventually accomplish almost all of the same things with both fingers and toes.
How manay phalanges do the toes have? what about the big toe?
three: proximal, middle and distal
two: proximal and distal
What are the three important arches of the foot?
Medial longitudinal arch, lateral longitudinal arch and transverse arch
Name two things that arches are maintained by
1. interlocking shapes of tarsals
2. ligaments and tendons
Name two characterisitcs of the growth of the appendicular skeleton
changes body proportions
Name two changes that happen in the adult skeleton as we age
skeleton loses mass
osteoporosis and limb fractures become more common
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