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Psyc 312 exam 2 study guide
Terms in this set (44)
Experience Sampling Method (ESM)
Researchers can collect much more detailed information about adolescents' experiences over the course of the day and thereby illuminate many different aspects of the adolescent experience. adolescents carry electronic devices such as smartphones and when they are signaled, report on whom they are with, what they are doing and how they are feeling. Adolescents moods are generally most positive when they are with friends and least positive when they are alone. Moods when with family fall somewhere between.
Free public education, with students grouped by age. until 1930 or so, high school was a luxury available only to the affluent.
The integration of all students with special needs into regular classrooms.
The process of separating students into ability groups, so that they take classes with peers at the same skill level. Black students were especially more likely to be enrolled in lower-track math classes in schools in which blacks are in the minority, even after taking into account students' qualifications. Has positive effects on the achievement of high-track students, negative effects on low track students and negligible effects on students in the middle.
A group against which an individual compares him or herself. Such labels as "jocks" "Brains" "populars" "druggies" and "skaters" serve as shorthand notions - accurate or inaccurate to describe what someone is like as a person and what he or she holds as important.
Large, loosely organized groups of young people, composed of several cliques and typically organized around a common shared activity.
Serve as the basis for adolescents' friendships and play an important role in their social development, many researchers have studied the determinants of It's composition.
effects of divorce that may not be apparent until much later in the child's development. Two explanations; ways in which adjustment difficulties might be expressed may not surface until adolescence. effects of early parental divorce will not be manifested until the adolescent begins dating and gets seriously invested in romantic relationships.
Period spanning roughly ages 10-13, corresponding roughly to the junior high or middle school years.
period spanning roughly ages 14-17, corresponding to the high school years.
Period spanning roughly ages 18-21, corresponding approximately to the college years.
The avoidance of any contact or interaction between brothers and sisters from the onset of puberty until one or both persons becomes married, part of the process of social redefinition at adolescence in many societies.
During early and middle adolescence, cliques tend to be composed of adolescents of the same sex. Boys and girls are interested in different things. A second reason concerns young adolescents' sensitivity about sex roles.
Period following World War 2, during which the number of infants born was extremely large.
Belief that age segregation has fueled the development of a separate and troublesome (youth culture).
Parents who are both responsive and demanding. warm but firm. Strive to raise a child who is self reliant and has a strong sense of initiative.
Place a high value on obedience and conformity. Tend to favor more punitive, absolute and forceful disciplinary measures. Tend to encourage independent behavior
When parents are very involved with their child but place very few demands on the child. Give their child a high degree of freedom. Tend to be concerned with raising a happy child.
Characterized by low levels of both responsiveness and demand from the child.
According to Baumrind, the characteristics at which best describe parental style are?
Parental control; the degree to which a parent insists on mature behavior from the child. Parental support and warmth; the degree to which a parent listens to, affirms and encourages the child.
what are the effects of having an extended family presence?
there is an increase in intimacy in childhood but a steep drop off with grandparents and others between childhood and adolescence
what % of american children will experience divorce?
what determines how well the kids adjust to divorce?
What are the characteristics of the retail and restaurant industries contributed to the rise in adolescent employment?
Low wages, No benefits, little training required. Spend time interacting with adolescents.
What are adolescents most likely to spend their money on?
Discretionary spending money, Self-indulgent luxury items, Also spent on drugs and alcohol.
What is the chief determinant of popularity in high school?
When are adolescents usually in the "worst" mood?
In the morning
Compare public and private schools for scholastic excellence. What factors are most likely to determine academic excellence?
class size, parental involvement, authoritative teachers
What is the single most important determinant of academic achievement?
what is the relationship between academic achievement and school size?
smaller schools have better academic attainment, more uniform curricula. Size 12-17 is ideal.
What are the characteristics of tracking programs in secondary education?
College prep programs, regular high school program.
Be able to describe each of the 4 parenting styles.
Authoritative - clear standards that are explained, encourage individuality, kids are responsible.
Authoritarian - absolute set of standards, encourages conformity, easily dominated by peers, less resistant to temptation. only conform to rules when they get caught.
Permissive/indulgent - non punitive, no behavior is bad, no clear rules, child is self regulating and self directing, children are immature, impulsive and non compliant. *this is the most common parenting style in America today.
Uninvolved Parents - minimize time and effort in child rearing, children are uninterested in school, truant, lack any sense of self, may use drugs and alcohol.
The most common Parenting style in America today
The popular notion of a generation gap has been supported in what differences between parents and adolescent children?
there is not much of a gap between the generations when it comes to core values, there is often a gap between teenagers and adults in matters of personal taste.
Characterize adolescents who join antisocial peer groups: what are they like?
Known as delinquents, join gangs, exposed to violence
Broad societal changes have contributed to changes in the structure of secondary schools. What are these changes?
Students achieve more when they attend schools that create a sense of community.
Be able to describe the changes in the understanding of friendship and the age at which these changes occur.
They share feelings and secrets, this happens around middle school,
Which type of parenting is the most prevalent among ethnic minorities and why?
Authoritative because over controlling parenting is not as harmful to these groups as it has been shown to be among white adolescents.
How does the school environment change as children move from elementary school to middle school?
teachers in Junior high are less likely to trust their students and more likely to emphasize discipline, junior high teachers also more likely to believe that students' ablities are fixed and not easily modified.
What is the factor that seems most important in influencing how well children adjust to divorce?
What is the ideal size of a school for adolescents?
Which will enhance adolescent development more? Involvement in extra-curricular activities or working at a job?
What is a hostile attribution bias and why is it important?
Unpopular children are more likely than their peers to think that other children's behavior is deliberately hostile, even when it is not.
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