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What are 3 characteristics of glucose?
It is soluble in water, it is a monosaccharide, it is part of the sucrose molecule
Milk that is treated with a commercially available lactase preparation undergoes what change?
increase in sweetness
What is an example of the difference between the chemical bonds in starch and those in cellulose?
Cellulose bonds are not hydrolyzed by human enzymes
What plays a major role in the breakdown of certain types of of dietary fiber in the large intestine?
With few exceptions, all of the following characteristics are shared by water-soluble and water insoluble fibers except
neither has an appreciable effect on glucose absorption
After you and your friend Dolores share pretzels and animal crackers, she announces that she really wants to start digesting her food by watching television. You inform Dolores that...
Carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth through the action of amylase, so she has already begun digesting the snacks.
For most of the world's population, what is the effect of aging on the activity of lactase?
Declines by 90%-95%
What is the chief reason that many people with lactose intolerance can consume foods containing some lactose without suffering any symptoms?
A change occurs in the GI bacteria
Why are hard cheeses lower in lactose than soft cheeses?
More lactose is removed during manufacturing
Among the following population groups, which shows the highest prevalence of lactose intolerance?
Which ingredients listed on food labels would be acceptable to the person who is highly intolerant to lactose in the diet?
What is the minimum daily amount of dietary carbohydrate necessary to spare body protein from excessive breakdown
Gluconeogenesis is a term that describes the synthesis of...
glucose from a noncarbyhydrate substance
You have just finished a light breakfast of toast and jelly. Which series of events proceeds upon digestion/absorption of the meal until it is near time for lunch?
Blood glucose rises, the pancreas releases insulin, glucose is taken up by the cells through the action of insulin, blood glucose levels decline, the pancreas releases glucose into the blood, blood glucose rises.
When blood glucose concentration falls, what pancreatic hormone is secreted to stimulate release of stored glucose?
What is a typical response of the body to changes in blood glucose?
Blood glucose levels that ball too low signal the release of glucagon
When you are under physical stress, what hormone is released quickly to stimulate an increase in blood glucose concentration?
In the time between meals, what organ releases glucose to help maintain normal blood glucose levels?
A person with a fasting blood glucose concentration of 129 mg/dL would be classified as....
a person eating lots of white bread, rice, and ready-to-eat cereals would have a diet with a a glycemic index that is....
What is a feature of diabetes?
Dietary management should focus on total carbohydrate intake rather than the type of carbohydrate consumed
What term describes how quickly glucose is absorbed from a food after ingestion, how high blood glucose rises as a result, and how quickly blood glucose returns to normal?
What is a characteristic of the conditions diabetes and hypoglycemia?
Both benefit from the inclusion of fiber-rich foods and consumption of smaller, more frequent meals
your nephew Jimmy, who is 10 years old, has been giving himself a shot in the thigh every day for the past year. He confides in you that he craves candy but was told by his parents that he can only eat sugar-free snacks. What does Jimmy most likely suffer from?
Type 1 Diabetes
What describes the glycemic index of foods?
A way of ranking foods according to their potential to increase blood glucose
In a person with type 2 diabetes, what food would ordinarily promote the least favorable glycemic effect?
What is the name of the sweetener consisting of a mixture of glucose and fructose formed by a chemical hydrolysis of sucrose?
What are three features of honey?
is it known to relieve coughing at night in children, a teaspoon provides more energy than a teaspoon of table sugar, it is known to decrease severity in mouth ulcers induced by chemotherapy in cancer patients.
What is recommended to help reduce the incidence of dental caries when the diet contains sugary foods?
Eat a sugary all at one time rather than in parts throughout the day
What describes the relationship between carbohydrate intake and dental health
Eating a sugary dessert at the beginning of a meal, rather than the end, is likely to promote dental caries
Approximately how many pounds of added sugars are consumed by the average U.S. resident each year?
You have just arrived at a lunch buffet and are faces with many choices. Although each of the following portions provides about 200 kcalories, which is the most nutrient dense?
3 slices of whole-wheat bread
Based on height, weight, age, and physical activity level, you have calculated that you should be consuming about 2200 kcalories per day. What portion is closest to the discretionary kcalories allowed in the USDA Food Guide for added sugars in your diet?
10 tsp brown sugar
According to the current recommendation, what is the maximum percentage of total energy intake that added sugar should contribute in the diet?
What is NOT a feature of artificial sweeteners
they do not provide about 1/2 the energy of carbohydrates plus small amounts of vitamins and minerals
What are the three components that are part of the chemical structure of aspartame?
Aspartic group, methyl group, and phenylalanine
Among the alternative sweeteners available in the United States, which has a structure that integrates chlorine atoms?
What is NOT a classification for the food alternatives mannitol, sorbitol, and xylitol?
What is a generic feature of the sugar alcohols (sugar replacers)?
They cannot be metabolized by cariogenic bacteria
What is known to correlate most strongly with reduced risks of deaths from heart disease?
High fiber intake
What is not a feature of high-fiber foods?
they do not provide more energy per gram than processed foods
In general, modifying a diet that by substituting complex carbohydrates for pure sugars results in a diet that is higher in...
what is NOT a characteristic of a high-fiber diet?
it may reduce risk of lung cancer but increase risk of breast cancer.
According to most dietary guidelines, what percentage of the day's total energy intake should be furnished by carbohydrates?
Allen is 20 years old and asks for help in selecting a fiber-rich diet. After he ranks the kinds of foods he likes to eat, you provide him with a list of food items consisting of
1 cup baked beans, 1 medium apple, 1 banana, 1½ cups oatmeal, 1 ounce 100% bran cereal, and ½ cup chopped raw carrots.
According to the American Dietetic Association, what is the Daily Value for fiber when expressed in g per 1000 kcal?
What is a feature of dairy products and carbohydrates?
Most cheeses provide little, if any, carbohydrate
What is typical response in people following a low-carbohydrate diet?
total weight loss after one year is the same as in people on conventional diets
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