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Chapter 4: Carbohydrates

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In which of the following are ample amounts of carbohydrates almost always found?
Plant Foods
What is NOT a source of dietary carbohydrates?
fish
3 sources of dietary carbohydrates
milk, fruits, legumes
what type of nutrient is starch?
complex carbuhydrate
What is NOT a simple carbohydrate?
starch
What are 3 simple carbohydrates?
White sugar, disaccharides, monosaccharides
How many carbon atoms are found in most common dietary monosaccharides?
6
What type of atoms are NOT found in a glucose molecule?
nitrogen
Types of atoms found in a glucose molecule
carbon, oxygen, hydrogen
What is known as blood sugar or dextrose?
glucose
what component accounts for the usually sweet taste of fruits?
simple sugars
What is known as fruit sugar?
fructose
What is known as levulose?
fructose
What is NOT a characteristic of glucose?
it is sweeter tasting than sucrose
What are 3 characteristics of glucose?
It is soluble in water, it is a monosaccharide, it is part of the sucrose molecule
What is the sweetest tasting simple carbohydrate in the diet?
fructose
Typical dietary sources of carbohydrate do not include...
glycogen
Typical dietary sources of carbohydrate include...
starch, maltose, phytates
Milk that is treated with a commercially available lactase preparation undergoes what change?
increase in sweetness
What is the reaction that links two monosaccharides together?
condensation
which is a byproduct of condensation of two molecules of glucose?
water
The chemical reaction by which starch is split into monosaccharides is termed?
hydrolysis
the chief carbohydrate in beet sugar is...
sucrose
What is the composition of sucrose?
one glucose and one fructose unit
What is the composition of maltose?
two glucose units
What is a component of all three dietary disaccharides?
Glucose
What is the composition of lactose?
one glucose and one galactose unit
What is the principle carbohydrate of milk?
lactose
What is another name for lactose?
milk sugar
What sugar is NOT found in plants?
Lactose
What three sugars are found in plants
glucose, sucrose, and fructose
What is the name of the animal polysaccharide composed of glucose units?
Glycogen
Glycogen is stored mainly in which tissues?
Muscle and Liver
What is a feature of glycogen?
is it virtually absent from animal meats
What is the primary storage form of carbohydrates in the body?
Glycogen
What is NOT a rich source of dietary starch?
fruits
What is the staple grain of Canada, the United States, and Europe?
Wheat
What is the predominant grain product in much of South and Central America?
Corn
What are cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose, and lignin?
fibers
What is described as a nonstarch polysaccharide?
Cellulose
What is an example of the difference between the chemical bonds in starch and those in cellulose?
Cellulose bonds are not hydrolyzed by human enzymes
What is a feature of the pectins?
They are used to thicken jelly
What is NOT characteristic of fibers?
An example of a nonpolysaccharide fiber is hemicellulose
A "functional fiber" is one that...
is extracted from plants and has a beneficial health effect
What plays a major role in the breakdown of certain types of of dietary fiber in the large intestine?
Bacteria
What is a characteristic of dietary fibers?
they are classified according to solubility in water
With few exceptions, all of the following characteristics are shared by water-soluble and water insoluble fibers except
neither has an appreciable effect on glucose absorption
what type of fiber is readily digested by colonic bacteria?
fermentable
What is a common source of resistant starch?
unripe bananas
what is a feature of resistant starch?
It resists hydrolysis by digestive enzymes
Characteristics of dietary phytic acid include everything except
it is not classified as a fiber
What describes the compound phytic acid?
nonnutrient component of plant seeds
Which fiber is water insoluble?
cellulose
_______ is not a water-soluble fiber
lignins
What contains the least amount of fiber?
white rice
Enzymatic digestion of starches takes place in the small intestine and also in the....
mouth
What is not a property of fiber
it elevates blood glucose levels
What is the name of the short chains of glucose units that result from starch breakdown?
dextrins
What does NOT act on simple sugars?
amylase
What is the primary absorption site for digestible carbohydrates?
small intestine
After you and your friend Dolores share pretzels and animal crackers, she announces that she really wants to start digesting her food by watching television. You inform Dolores that...
Carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth through the action of amylase, so she has already begun digesting the snacks.
The enzyme that digests dietary sugars are produces by the...
small intestine
What is the primary organ that converts fructose to glucose following absorption?
Liver
What is the first organ to receive carbohydrates absorbed from the intestine?
Liver
3 symptoms of lactose intolerance.
bloating, diarrhea, cramping
What is NOT a symptom of lactose intolerance?
constipation
What percent of the world's adult population shows good tolerance to lactose ingestion?
30
What is the least likely to be connected with the development of lactose intolerance
milk allergy
a person diagnosed with milk allergy would be sensitive to the milk's
protein
For most of the world's population, what is the effect of aging on the activity of lactase?
Declines by 90%-95%
What is a characteristic of yogurt?
Bacteria in yogurt produce lactase
What is the chief reason that many people with lactose intolerance can consume foods containing some lactose without suffering any symptoms?
A change occurs in the GI bacteria
What is a feature of kefir?
it contains live bacterial organisms
which contains the lowest amount of lactose per serving?
american cheese
Why are hard cheeses lower in lactose than soft cheeses?
More lactose is removed during manufacturing
What is feature of lactose?
It is used as filler in one out of five prescription drugs
What provides the least amount of lactose per serving?
cheddar cheese
Among the following population groups, which shows the highest prevalence of lactose intolerance?
African Americans
Which ingredients listed on food labels would be acceptable to the person who is highly intolerant to lactose in the diet?
Dextrins
If you were to exercise continuously, about how long would glycogen stores last?
a few hours
What fraction of the body's total glycogen content us found in the liver?
1/3
In what organ is most of the body's glycogen found?
muscles
at rest, the typical body stores of glycogen can provide energy for a maximum of about...
1 day
What is the minimum daily amount of dietary carbohydrate necessary to spare body protein from excessive breakdown
50-100 g
What is the primary function of insulin?
lowers blood glucose levels
The process by which an amino acid is used to make glucose is termed...
gluconeogenesis
Gluconeogenesis is a term that describes the synthesis of...
glucose from a noncarbyhydrate substance
which values falls within the normal range (mg/dL) of blood glucose?
75
You have just finished a light breakfast of toast and jelly. Which series of events proceeds upon digestion/absorption of the meal until it is near time for lunch?
Blood glucose rises, the pancreas releases insulin, glucose is taken up by the cells through the action of insulin, blood glucose levels decline, the pancreas releases glucose into the blood, blood glucose rises.
What is the first organ to respond to an increase in blood glucose concentration?
pancreas
What is a normal range (mg/dL) for blood glucose?
70-110
When blood glucose concentration falls, what pancreatic hormone is secreted to stimulate release of stored glucose?
glucagon
What is a typical response of the body to changes in blood glucose?
Blood glucose levels that ball too low signal the release of glucagon
What blood glucose concentration (mg/dL) is most consistent with hypoglycemia?
40
When you are under physical stress, what hormone is released quickly to stimulate an increase in blood glucose concentration?
Epinephrine
In the time between meals, what organ releases glucose to help maintain normal blood glucose levels?
Liver
A person with a fasting blood glucose concentration of 129 mg/dL would be classified as....
diabetic
What glycemic index category would include yogurt and cheese?
low
a person eating lots of white bread, rice, and ready-to-eat cereals would have a diet with a a glycemic index that is....
high
What is a feature of the condition hypoglycemia?
it occurs rarely in otherwise healthy people
What is a feature of diabetes?
Dietary management should focus on total carbohydrate intake rather than the type of carbohydrate consumed
What term describes how quickly glucose is absorbed from a food after ingestion, how high blood glucose rises as a result, and how quickly blood glucose returns to normal?
Glycemic Response
A person with a fasting blood glucose level of 101 mg/dL would be classified as....
prediabetic
What is a characteristic of the conditions diabetes and hypoglycemia?
Both benefit from the inclusion of fiber-rich foods and consumption of smaller, more frequent meals
your nephew Jimmy, who is 10 years old, has been giving himself a shot in the thigh every day for the past year. He confides in you that he craves candy but was told by his parents that he can only eat sugar-free snacks. What does Jimmy most likely suffer from?
Type 1 Diabetes
What is a feature of diabetes?
Many people with type 2 diabetes are obese
What describes the glycemic index of foods?
A way of ranking foods according to their potential to increase blood glucose
In a person with type 2 diabetes, what food would ordinarily promote the least favorable glycemic effect?
Baked Potato
What is the name of the sweetener consisting of a mixture of glucose and fructose formed by a chemical hydrolysis of sucrose?
Invert Sugar
What is the predominant sweetener used in formulating beverages?
High-fructose corn syrup
Honey contains...
more kcalories per teaspoon than sucrose
Which sweetener contains a significant amount of calcium?
Molasses
What is NOT a feature of honey?
it is the preferred sweetener in infant food
What are three features of honey?
is it known to relieve coughing at night in children, a teaspoon provides more energy than a teaspoon of table sugar, it is known to decrease severity in mouth ulcers induced by chemotherapy in cancer patients.
What is best known to result from regular ingestion of sugar?
Dental caries
What is recommended to help reduce the incidence of dental caries when the diet contains sugary foods?
Eat a sugary all at one time rather than in parts throughout the day
What describes the relationship between carbohydrate intake and dental health
Eating a sugary dessert at the beginning of a meal, rather than the end, is likely to promote dental caries
Approximately how many pounds of added sugars are consumed by the average U.S. resident each year?
105
You have just arrived at a lunch buffet and are faces with many choices. Although each of the following portions provides about 200 kcalories, which is the most nutrient dense?
3 slices of whole-wheat bread
Approximately how many kcalories are provided by two teaspoons of sugar?
30
Based on height, weight, age, and physical activity level, you have calculated that you should be consuming about 2200 kcalories per day. What portion is closest to the discretionary kcalories allowed in the USDA Food Guide for added sugars in your diet?
10 tsp brown sugar
According to the current recommendation, what is the maximum percentage of total energy intake that added sugar should contribute in the diet?
25
What is NOT a feature of artificial sweeteners
they do not provide about 1/2 the energy of carbohydrates plus small amounts of vitamins and minerals
What is stevia?
An herb-derived sweetener
What artificial sweetener has a composition similar to aspartame?
Neotame
What is NOT a component of the chemical structure of aspartame?
methanol group
What are the three components that are part of the chemical structure of aspartame?
Aspartic group, methyl group, and phenylalanine
What has the highest relative sweetness among approved sweeteners
Sucralose
Among the alternative sweeteners available in the United States, which has a structure that integrates chlorine atoms?
Sucralose
What is a characteristic of the sugar replacers (sugar alcohols)?
They have a low glycemic index
What is NOT a classification for the food alternatives mannitol, sorbitol, and xylitol?
Artificial sweeteners
What is a characteristic of the sugar alcohols?
they provide kcalories
When consumed in excess, which if the following is most likely to lead to diarrhea?
Sorbitol
What is a generic feature of the sugar alcohols (sugar replacers)?
They cannot be metabolized by cariogenic bacteria
What is the approximate energy content (kcal/g) of most sugar alcohols?
2
What is known to correlate most strongly with reduced risks of deaths from heart disease?
High fiber intake
What food is NOT a rich source of soluble fiber?
wheat bran
What is not a feature of high-fiber foods?
they do not provide more energy per gram than processed foods
In general, modifying a diet that by substituting complex carbohydrates for pure sugars results in a diet that is higher in...
fiber
what is NOT a characteristic of a high-fiber diet?
it may reduce risk of lung cancer but increase risk of breast cancer.
According to most dietary guidelines, what percentage of the day's total energy intake should be furnished by carbohydrates?
45-65
What is the RDA for carbohydrates?
130 g
Allen is 20 years old and asks for help in selecting a fiber-rich diet. After he ranks the kinds of foods he likes to eat, you provide him with a list of food items consisting of
1 cup baked beans, 1 medium apple, 1 banana, 1½ cups oatmeal, 1 ounce 100% bran cereal, and ½ cup chopped raw carrots.
According to the American Dietetic Association, what is the Daily Value for fiber when expressed in g per 1000 kcal?
11.5
About how many grams of carbohydrate are contained in one ounce of foods in the grain group?
15
What is the DRI for fiber for a person consuming 2500 kcalories?
35 g
What provides the most fiber?
1 cup split peas
What does not provide about 15 g of carbohydrate per serving?
1/2 cup green beans
What is a feature of dairy products and carbohydrates?
Most cheeses provide little, if any, carbohydrate
What is typical response in people following a low-carbohydrate diet?
total weight loss after one year is the same as in people on conventional diets
What is NOT associated with the regular consumption of sugary beverages?
The fructose stimulates excessive release of insulin, which suppresses appetite