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GEO 101 Exam 3
Terms in this set (90)
Processes of change involving the nature and composition of the economy of a particular region
Who defines economic development
Expected results of economic development
increase in economic prosperity
What is economy?
Wealth and resources of a country or region ,particularly in terms of production and consumption of goods
What types of change can one expect with development?
1. structure of economy
2. form of economic development
3. availability and use of technology
What are implications of this biased definition?
allows for evaluation, assumes material prosperity is good
Global patterns of economic development?
Main characteristic of the pattern?
resulted from the capitalist system, and differences ex. history, politics, culture
• HIGH PRDUCTIVITY
• HIGH PROSPERITY
• Dominate trade
• Control technology
• North America, Japan,
• Low productivity
• Small share of wealth
• Primitive technology
• Dependent and
disadvantaged trade relationship with core
• INCREASING IN
• Exploit periphery
• Exploited by core
Argentina, Chile, Brazil,
Venezuela, Mexico, South
Africa, Eastern Europe,
Saudi Arabia, India
Historical events that led to global economic pattern
16th C- imperial expansion by Europe
18 C- industrial revolution
Clusters of interrelated energy, transportation and production technology that dominate economic
activity for several decades
technology systems influence on spatial patterns of deve
technology systems impact the significance of and role in the global system of different places
3 main resources related to development
factors that influence the distribution of developmental resources
1. Physical location
2. ability to cultivate
factors influencing development
2. Industrial Resources
3. Cultivated land
pattern of access to developmental resources
- Most can produce energy
- Most industrial resources found in: US, Russia, South Africa, Australia
- most peripheral countries are poor
- unable to invest in, and and are unaware of industrial resources
relationship of resource location and development
Can you develop without resources?
How is economic development measured?
GDP, GNI, PPP
Gross Domestic Product- Estimate of the total value of all materials, food, goods, and services that are produced by a country in a particular year
Gross National Income- Measure of the income that flows to a country from production
wherever in the world that production occurs
Purchasing Power Parity- Measures how much of a common market basket of goods and services each currency can purchase locally
two limitations to quantitative measures we discussed?
1. don't account for informal economy
2. economic statistics do not necessarily represent everyone's competition of "development' or "success"
activities that are unregulated (unliscenced, lack of formal contract, earnings are unreported)
examples of informal econ.
black market, steet vendors
Why is informal economy significant
It is a form of economy that is not taxed so the gov. recieveces nothing. $1.5 trillion/ year
Who participates in informal economy
traditionally: less developed countries
recent: increased amounts in core countries (natives, undocumented workers)
What are the issues with informal economy?
for workers: lower wages, no regulations, protections or insurance
3 rules of informal economy
1. cooperative- offers a means for people to earn a living
2. facts are relative- whats good for one, might be bad for another
3. alternatives are important- alternative currency, bartering
Gross national happiness-Sustainable development should take a holistic approach towards notions of progress and give equal importance to non-economic aspects of well-being.
Who developed GNH? what are the pillars?
Dragon King of Bhutan
1. sustainable economic development
2. cultural preservation
3. environmental conservation
4. good governance, social equality
Why is there a GNH?
What does it measure?
- to gauge a country's happiness (duh)
- psychological wellbeing, standard of living, good governance, health, education, cultural diversity, community vitality, time use, ecological diversity
Criticisms of GNH?
-subjective, difficult to measure
- happiness is culturally defined
- internal turmoil
-Classification of economy into 4 sectors
-Tertiary and quaternary sector activities are limited in extent
-concerned directly with natural resources
-agriculture, mining, forestry, fishing
-core, asia, africa
-process, transform, fabricate or assemble raw materials derived from primary
Where is manufacturing done
- most in core
- 60% manufacturing done in US, Japan, germany, uk, china
- investments and activities that span international boundaries
- subsidiary components (companies, factories, offices, facilities)
Special economic zones
Geographical regions that have economic and other laws that are more free-market oriented than a country's typical or national laws
criticisms of TNC
- exploitation, profit/location mismatch
-sale and exchange of goods and services (warehousing, retail, transportation and distribution, advertising, restaurant service)
- handling and processing of knowledge and information (data processing, information retrieval, research and development)
Geographic division of labor
- specialization by country, in particular products for export
- allows participation in global economy
How is it organized?
- exchange of goods on global scale
- trading blocs
groups of countries with formalized systems of trading agreements
-economic policy or situation in which a nation is independent of international trade and not reliant upon imported goods
What is inequality based on?
- inequality in international trade is systematic
-based on terms of trade
terms of trade
ratio of prices at which imports and exports are exchanged
- differently valued goods are exchanged on global scale
price not reflective of demand
price reflects demand
What is fair trade?
A movement focused on creating equitable relationships between
consumers and producers in the most economically disadvantaged
regions of the world
Four principles of fair trade
1. create opportunities for the most economically disadvantaged producers
2. capacity building- self reliance
3. ensuring that women's work is valued and rewarded- social equality
4. payment of a fair price- economic value
Human/nature relationship of food
humans can manipulate food to survive
Characteristics of modern food and agriculture
-industrial manufacturing processes (make vs. grow)
-transnational corporations (activities in multiple political jurisdictions)
How is it obtained?
- Any substance to provide nutritional support for the body
- obtained historically by hunting and gathering/ agriculture
-obtained currently thru food manufacturing
Science, art and business directed at the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance and profit.
activity or business of growing crops or raising livestock
Forces influencing agriculture
2. locational differences
3. available technology
history- post-hunting/ gathering
social integration- communal but has limits
trend- diminishing on global scale
growing crops for the purpose of sale (usually more genetic farming involved)
maintaining soil fertility by rotating fields that are cultivated
Char. of shifting cultivation
method- slash and burn
requirements- communal land, low population density
issues- land intensive, time intensive, low productivity, remote areas
Slash and Burn
burning vegetation in a field to provide nutrients for the soil (5 yearsish)
Breeding and herding of animals to satisfy human needs for food,
allowing animals to graze in one area
leading animals around to multiple areas for feeding
movement of herds according to seasonal rhythms
1st agricultural revolution
-domestication of crops and animals (seed agriculture, animals for food and work)
-lead to settlements and civilization (tigris/ euphrates, nile)
2nd agricultural revolution
- improved technology
3rd agricultural revolution
- chemical/synthetic inputs
- food manufacturing
mechanization, synthetic inputs, food manufacturing
Role of farm in industrial agr.
- shift of farm as center of agriculture to farm as one part of agricultural process
-integrated multi-level process
-shift from primary sector product to secondary sector product
genetic engineering of plants and animals in an attempt to increase agricultural productivity
-Technique that uses living organisms to improve, make or modify plants and animals or to develop microorganisms for specific uses (super plants, plant cloning)
-Benefits- control costs, production, and environmental impacts
-costs- impacts on health and environmental, impacts on peripheral countries
- bio engineering plants to produce pharmaceuticals
distribution of industrial agriculture?
not evenly spread
Differences in core and periphery distribution?
Core: has power over indust. agr. Peripheral: developed industrial agr. techniques from core
industrial agr. in periphery
results of modern distribution of industrial agr.
-competitive, higher profit
-replace traditional exports
-more requirements, stricter standards
Nontraditional agricultural exports
agreement between farmers and processing firms for the production, supply, purchase of agricultural goods
Alternative food movements Based on?
-impact on local areas, workers
-farming without the use of commercial fertilizers, synthetic pesticides, and growth hormones
Local food movements
-consuming foods that are produced within 100 miles (co-ops)
-growing food in urban areas
-historically in blight areas
slow food movements
-resisting fast food, appreciation for culture, and meal as an event
-areas where healthy, affordable food is difficult to obtain
-low socioeconomic areas
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