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Ch 8: Intelligence, Individual Differences in Cognition
Terms in this set (35)
Ability to reason logically, connect ideas, and solve real problems. Also includes verbal ability and social competence.
Ability to speak clearly and articulately. Element of Intelligence
Interest in the world at large. Ability to admit when you make a mistake. Element of Intelligence
Psychologists who specialize in measuring psychological characteristics such as intelligence and personality
Approach to measure intelligence and personality characteristics in quantifiable ways. IQ test is one type of test used.
Hierarchical Theory of Intelligence
John Carrol. Theory that includes both general and specific components of intelligence. 3 Levels: 1. General Intelligence 2. 8 Broad categories of intellectual skill 3. Specific Skills
Broad Category of intellectual skill in John Carrol's Hierarchical Theory of Intelligence. Ability to perceive relations among stimuli. Includes sequential reasoning, induction, and quantitative reasoning skills.
Broad Category of intellectual skill in John Carrol's Hierarchical Theory of Intelligence.Comprises a person's culturally influenced accumulated knowledge and skills. Includes understanding printed language, comprehending language, and knowing vocabulary
Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Howard Gardner. Broader perspective on intelligence and how it develops. Find strengths and weaknesses to help students develop talents. People use a mixture, but tend towards one. 9 Types: 1. Linguistic 2. Logical-Mathematical 3. Spatial 4. Musical 5. Bodily-Kinesthetic 6. Interpersonal 7. Intrapersonal 8. Naturalistic 9. Existential
Type of intelligence by Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Also included in psychometric theories of intelligence. Knowing the meanings of words, using words to understand new ideas, and using language to convey ideas to others.
Type of intelligence by Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Also included in psychometric theories of intelligence. Understanding relations that exist among objects, actions, and ideas, as well as the logical/mathematical operations that can be performed on them.
Type of intelligence by Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Also included in psychometric theories of intelligence. Perceiving objects accurately and imagining in the "mind's eye" the appearance of an object before and after it has been transformed.
Type of intelligence by Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Comprehending and producing sounds varying in pitch, rhythm, and emotional tone.
Type of intelligence by Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Using one's body in highly differentiating ways, as dancers, craftspeople, and athletes do.
Type of intelligence by Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Identifying different feelings, moods, motivations, and intentions in others.
Type of intelligence by Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Understanding one's emotions and knowing one's strengths/weaknesses
Type of intelligence by Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Understanding the natural world, distinguishing natural objects from artifacts, grouping and labeling natural phenomena.
Type of intelligence by Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Considering "ultimate" issues, such as the purpose of life and the nature of death.
Nontraditional aspect of intelligence. Ability to use one's own and others' emotions effectively for solving problems and living happily.
Theory of Successful Intelligence
Robert Sternberg. Using one's abilities skillfully to achieve one's personal goals. 3 Different Abilities: 1. Analytic Ability 2. Creative Ability 3. Practical Ability
Ability from Sternberg's Theory of Successful Intelligence. Ability to analyze problems and generate different solutions. Familiar questions/tasks used for problem solving. Considers different causes of problem. IQ Tests believed to measure this ability. Ex: Try to find cause of iPod not syncing songs
Ability from Sternberg's Theory of Successful Intelligence. Ability to deal flexibly with novel situations and problems. Novel situations/problems not faced before. More flexibility in thinking for problem solving. Ex:Find something to do to pass time in car when iPod is broken
Ability from Sternberg's Theory of Successful Intelligence. Ability to know what situation/plan will actually work. Used to solve real-world problems. Reality of situation, context, "street smarts", culture. Problems can be solved in different way, but only one is practical in reality. Ex: Looking online for way to fix iPod if parents would not approve of songs
Purpose to predict future performance/Intelligence. Focus on Academic Skills. Ex: ACTs/SATs to predict college performance, GRE to predict Graduate School performance
Purpose to measure how much know at certain point. Focus on Academic Skills. Ex: MEAP/Standardized Tests
Difficulty of the problems that a person could solve correctly based on age
IQ. Ratio of mental age to chronological age, multiplied by 100. IQ=(MA/CA)100
Measures child's learning potential by having the child learn something new in the presence of the examiner and with the examiner's help. Reveals child's strengths and weaknesses. Most valuable for children who have difficulties learning in school.
Developed from the problem of bias. Test items based on experiences common to many cultures.
Self-fulfilling prophecy in which knowledge of stereotypes leads to anxiety and reduced performance consistent with the original stereotype
Traditionally refers to individuals with scores of at least 130 on intelligence tests (academic skills). Now broadened to include exceptional talent in other areas
Creativity/Creative Thinking. Aim is not a single correct answer, but fresh and unusual lines of thought. Many correct answers/solutions, many different wars to solve, may think of solution no one has ever thought of before.
Non-Creative Thinking. One specific answer, only one way to solve. Either get it or don't.
Substantial limitations in intellectual ability as well as problems in adapting to an environment, with both emerging before 18 years old. Factors: 1. Biomedical (chromosomes, malnutrition) 2. Social (poverty, lack of parental relationships) 3. Behavioral (Neglect, domestic violence) 4. Educational (Impaired parenting, lack of special ed services).
Have difficulty mastering an academic subject, have normal intelligence, and are not suffering from other conditions that could explain poor performance, such as sensory impairment or inadequate instruction. Types: 1. Developmental Dyslexia (difficulty reading individual words) 2. Impaired Reading Comprehension (difficulty in understanding words that have been read successfully) 3. Mathematical Learning Disability/Developmental Dyscalculia (Difficulties in math)
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chapter 16 Emotional and Social Development
Human Growth and Development chapter 3
Lifespan Development Chapter 6
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