51 terms

Ch. 16: The Reformation and the Scientific Revolution

Avignon Papacy
The period of time in which the French popes moved to Avignon. During this time, it was questionable if they were the true leaders of the Church. John Wycliffe emerged as a result of it.
John Wycliffe
English theologian who was a critic of the French papacy. He was a professor who gave lectures and wrote pamphlets that did not reach other countires.
John Wycliffe
Believed in Biblical Authority, where the Bible was to be confronted, not the Pope. He translated the New Testament into English , and this was called Wycliffe's Bible.
John Wycliffe
Believed in Anti-Clericalism, where the clergy should be more like Jesus (poor, worldly). He also believed in consubstantiation, where the clergy can only transform bread and wine spiritually into flesh and blood of Jesus.
The followers of Wycliffe who promoted his message in England.They protected Wycliffe, who then died peacefully.
Western Schism
The period of time in which there were 3 popes and the common people did not know which was the real one and thus which one to follow. John Huss emerged as a result of it.
John Huss
A Bohemian priest who believed in biblical authority. He also believed in Anti-Clericalism, where laymen (commoners) can also have the bread.
Followers of John Huss who rebel after Huss is burned at the stake.They are allowed to form the Ultraquist Church, where they are able to eat and drink the bread and wine.
Renaissance Papacy
The period of time in which the popes focused on regaining prestige, reconquering the papal states, and rebuilding Rome. These were solely worldly desires, though, and they did not focus enough on religion. Erasmus and Thomas More emerged as a result of it.
Dutch priest and Christian Humanist. This meant that he wanted to discover the true meaning of Christianity and went to primary sources because he believed it was corrupted.
He wrote "In Praise of Folly" in which he discussed how the clergy was overly concerned with worldly practices. He stressed the Philosophy of Christ, which told to simply be a good person on the inside.
He translated the New Testament from Greek into Latin because the already existing one was mistranslated.
Thomas More
English statesman and Christian Humanist. He was a friend of Erasmus.
Thomas More
He wrote "Utopia" that was about a perfect place. In it, he pointed out what was wrong with his society because there was no Church in his utopia. Thus, if there was a Church in his utopia, it would be even better.
Tower Experience
Martin Luther was a professor of theology at the University of Wittenberg. This is the term for his realization where he privately rejected Good Works such as fasting and traveling, and believed in Sola Fide.
Johann Tetzel
The man that was selling indulgences, which were pieces of paper that took the place of sin and freed one from purgatory and penance (earthly crime). This was a ploy to make money to rebuild the St. Peter's Basilica for the Pope.
95 Theses
Luther wrote and nailed these statements to the Church door in protest of Johann Tetzel's indulgences. The Pope thought the whole event was a Monks' Quarrel.
Papal Excommunication
Event in which Pope Leo X excommunicates Luther because Luther makes public his 3 beliefs: Sola Fide, Biblical Authority, and Priesthood of all Believers, which meant clergy and leity were equal in God's eyes.
Diet of Worms
Event that Charles V organizes to deal with Luther. He puts him on trial for heresy. The Edict of Worms is established, which declares Luther a heretic and outlaw. Prince Frederick the Wise protects him though because he was the ruler of Saxony and he didn't like Charles V.
Peasants' War
Rebellion that Thomas Muntzer, an early follower of Luther, starts. He does this because he misinterprets Luther's challenging of the Church as challenging of all authority. Luther opposes this rebellion and instructs the German princes to stop them. 100,000 peasants are killed.
Battle of Frankehausen
Specific battle between the princes and the rebels. Luther wants to keep the princes on his side, and thus takes their side in the battle against his followers.
Augsburg Confession
Luther writes this list of 28 articles with Philip Melancthon that lists the beliefs of Lutheranism. He did this to avoid further misinterpretation of his beliefs, like Thomas Muntzer.
Marburg Colloquy
Religious meeting that was held in a German town. Martin Luther and Ulrich Zwingli could not agree on the subject of consubstantiation / commemoration however, and thus sects of Protestantism emerged.
Philip I of Hesse
German prince who was Protestant and thought if Protestantism were split, it would be picked off by the Church and the emperor and cease to exist. He thus invites all the Protestant leaders to the Marburg Colloquy to discuss ideas and develop sacraments.
Religion founded by Peter through the New Testament. The authority was the Pope, salvation was through good works and faith, Church was greater than the State, and it influenced the Italian states, Spain, France, and the southern HRE.
Religion founded by Luther through the Augsburg Confession. The authority was the Bible, salvation was through Sola Fide, the State was greater than the State, and it influenced the northern HRE and Scandinavia.
Religion founded by Henry VIII through the Act of Supremacy. The authority was the monarchs, salvation was through good works and faith, the Church and State were equal, and it influenced England.
Religion founded by John Calvin through the "Institutes of the Christian Religion". The authority was the Bible, salvation was through predestination (elect), the Church and State were equal, and it influenced Switzerland, Scotland, and the Low Countries.
Paul III
Italian Pope who was a Counter Reformer. He established the Roman Inquisition and the Council of Trent.
Roman Inquisition
Court established by Paul III to identify and punish heretics, which were the Protestants. Jews and Muslims were not targeted because they weren't Christians and therefore had no wrong beliefs. This court was very successful.
Council of Trent
Meeting established by Paul III that Catholic bishops and cardinals attended to solidify beliefs and traditions. It established 3 things: Papal authority, Good works and faith, and the Vulgate Bible as the only true Bible and the sacraments as valid.
Charles V
Holy Roman Emperor who was a Counter Reformer. He partook in the Schmalkaldic War and established the Peace of Augsburg.
Schmalkaldic War
War in which German princes (specifically Philip I of Hesse) formed a league to protect themselves from the spread of Catholicism. They lose, but do not give up Protestantism.
Peace of Augsburg
Treaty that was established by Charles V that legalized Protestantism. German princes were allowed to decide the religion for their people to follow, but Catholicism and Lutheranism were the only choices. ("Cuius Regio, Eeius Religio").
Paul IV
Pope who was a Counter Reformer. He established the Roman Ghetto and ordered the burning of the Index of Forbidden Books.
Roman Ghetto
This community was established by Paul IV for Jews to live in. They were forced to live in a certain area and couldn't leave, so as to halt the influence of Judaism.
Index of Forbidden Books
List of books that were burned by Paul IV. It included Luther's 95 Theses, non-Vulgate Bibles, and other books that threatened Catholicism.
New art style that was established during the Counter / Catholic Reformation. It was characterized by a sharp contrast between light and dark colors, movement / action of characters, and drama / intensity. An example of this art style is the painting of St. Peter's Crucifiction by Caravaggio. The Church adopted this art style to strengthen and promote the Catholic faith.
Ignatius of Loyola
Spanish soldier who was a Catholic Reformer. He wrote "Spiritual Exercises" and established the Society of Jesus.
Spiritual Exercises
Book written by Ignatius of Loyola that was about daily devotions to religion to develop close, personal relationships with God, just as he did when he was wounded. This book stressed ideas similar to Protestant beliefs, which made Catholicism more attractive.
Society of Jesus
Monastic order established by Ignatius of Loyola. Members of it were called Jesuits. It had 3 beliefs: education (schools to promote Catholicism), preaching (Catholicism in Protestant areas), and missionary work (went on voyages with explorers during Age of Exploration to spread Catholicism to new areas).
Teresa of Avila
Spanish woman who was a Catholic Reformer. She wrote "The Interior Castle" about having a close relationship with God through mental exercises and cutting out the clergy.
Christian Mystic
A person who promotes Christianity through developing close relationships with God. They did this without the clergy or any worldly things. Ignatius of Loyola and Teresa of Avila were examples of this. These became popular in Spain.
Athenian scientist who wrote "Physics" and mentioned in it the five elements: water, earth, fire, air, and ether (perfect substance in space). He outlined terrestrial motion (at rest, water+earth go up, fire+air go down) and celestial motion (ether moves in perfect circle by prime mover).
Scientist during the 2nd century who wrote "The Great Treatise" about the universe. He established geocentrism, which claimed that the 5 planets revolve around the Earth.
2nd century scientist who claimed animal anatomy was the same as human anatomy. He thus didn't feel the need to dissect humans because they were sacred.
Belief that knowledge about nature, the Earth, and the universe was linked with religion. If there was no link to religion, then the knowledge was disregarded as false.
Natural philosopher and Polish astronomer from Padua who wrote "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies". This book outlined heliocentrism, which meant that the planets revolve around the Sun. This also led to a new definition of the word "revolution".
Natural philosopher, German mathematician, and Assistant of Tycho Brahe. He watched the heavens for 30 years and then made the 3 Laws of Planetary Motion: planets move around sun elliptically, planets move faster near sun, and farther planets take longer to orbit sun. He used observations and math to make these conclusions, unlike Aristotle and Ptolemy.
Natural philosopher and Italian astronomer from Florence, Italy. He made the Law of Inertia that claimed that all objects stay in motion unless acted upon. He developed a powerful telescope that allowed him to discover that the moon was imperfect. He also wrote "The Dialogues", a fictional novel supporting heliocentrism, which the Roman Inquisition put him under house arrest for.
Natural philosopher and English mathematician who wrote "Principles", which explained how gravity determines motion on Earth and in space. He thus brought together the ideas of Kepler and Galilio.