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45 terms

Apologia Biology Module 6 Edition 2

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Absorption
The transport of dissolved substances into cells.
Digestion
The breakdown of absorbed substances.
Respiration
The breakdown of food molecules with a release of energy.
Excretion
The removal of soluble waste materials.
Egestion
The removal of nonsoluble waste materials.
Secretion
The release of biosynthesized substances.
Homeostasis
Maintaining the status quo.
Reproduction
Producing more cells.
Cytology
The study of cells.
Cell Wall
A rigid structure on the outside of certain cells, usually plant bacteria cells.
Middle Lamella
The thin film between the cell walls of adjacent plant cells.
Plasma Membrane
The semipermeable membrane between the cell contents and either the cell wall or the cells surroundings.
Cytoplasm
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended.
Ions
Substances in which at least one atom has an imbalance of protons and electrons.
Cytoplasmic Streaming
The motion of cytoplasm in a cell that results in a coordinated movement of the cell's contents.
Mitochondria
The organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy.
Lysosome
The organelles in animal cells responsible for hydroysis reactions that break down proteins, polysaccharides, disaccharides, and some lipids.
Ribsomes
Non-membrane-bounded organelles responsible for protein synthesis.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
An organelle of an extensive network of folded membranes that performs several tasks within a cell.
Rough ER
ER that is dotted with ribosomes.
Smooth ER
ER that has no ribosomes.
Leucoplasts
Organelles that store starches or oil.
Chromoplasts
Organelles that contain pigments used in photosynthesis.
Central Vacuole
A large vacuole that rests at the center of most plant cells and is filled with a solution that contains a high concentration of solutes.
Waste Vacuoles
Vacuoles that contain the waste products of digestion.
Phagocytosis
The process by which a cell engulfs foreign substances or other cells.
Phagocytic Vacuole
A vacuole that holds the matter which a cell engulfs.
Pinocytic Vesicle
Vesicle formed at the plasma membrane to allow the absorption of large molecules.
Secretion Vesicle
Vesicle that holds secretion products so that they can be transported to the plasma membrane and released.
Golgi Bodies
The organelles where proteins and lipids are stored and then modified to suit the needs of the cell.
Microtubules
Spiral strands of protein molucules that form a tubelike structure.
Nuclear Membrane
A high-porous membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm.
Chromatin
Clusters of DNA, RNA and proteins in the nucleus of a cell.
Cytoskeleton
A network of fibers that hold the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement.
Microfilaments
Fine, thredlike proteins found in the cell's cytoskeleton.
Intermediate Filaments
Threadlike proteins in the cell's cytoskeleton that are roughly twice as thick as microfilaments.
Phospholipid
A lipid in which one of the fatty acid molecules has been replaced by a molecule that contains a phosphate group.
Passive Transport
Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane according to the dictates of smosis or diffusion.
Active Transport
Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane (typically opposite the dictates of osmosis or diffusion) aided by a process that requires energy.
Isotonic Solution
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is essentially equal to that of the cell which resides in the solution.
Hypertonic Solution
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is greater than that of the cell that resides in the solution.
Plasmolysis
Collapse of a walled cell's cytoplasm due to a lack of water.
Cytolysis
The rupuring of a cell due to excess internal pressure.
Hypotonic Solution
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is less than that of the cell that resides in the solution.
Activation Energy
Energy necessary to get a chemical reation going.