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The science that studies how characteristics get passed from parent to offspring.

Genetic Factors

The general guideline of traits determined by a person's DNA.

Environmental Factors

Those "nonbiological" factors that are involved in a person's surroundings such as the nature of the person's parents, the person's friends, and the person's behavioral choices.

Spiritual Factors

The factors in a person's life that are determined by the quality of his or her relationship with God.


A section of DNA that codes for the production of a protein or a portion of a protein, thereby causing a trait.

Messenger RNA

The RNA that performs transcription.


A three-nuleotide base sequese on tRNA.


A sequence of three nucleotide bases on mRNA that refers to a specific amino acid.


DNA coiled around and supported by proteins, found in the nucleus of the cell.


A process of asexual reproduction in eukaryotic cell.


The time interval between cellular reproduction.

Mother Cell

A cell ready to begin reproduction, containing duplicated DNA and centrioles.


The region that joins two sister chromatides.


The figure produce when the chromosomes of a species during metaphase are arranged according to their homologous pairs.

Diploid Cell

A cell with chromosomes that come in homologous pairs.

Haploid Cell

A cell that has only one representative of each chromosome pair.

Diploid Number (2n)

The total number of chromosomes in a diploid cell.

Haploid Number (n)

the number of homologous pairs in a diploid cell.


The process by which a diploid (2n) cell forms gametes (n).


Haploid cells (n) produced by diploid cells (2n) for the purpose of sexual reproduction.


A non-cellular infectious agent that has two characteristics: (1) It has genetic material (RNA or DNA) inside a protective protein coat. (2) It cannot reproduce on its own.


Specialized proteins that aid in destroying infectious agents.


A weakened or inactive version of a pathogen that stimulates the body's production of antibodies which can aid in destroying the pathogen.

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