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23 terms

Apologia Biology Module 7 Edition 2

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Genetics
The science that studies how characteristics get passed from parent to offspring.
Genetic Factors
The general guideline of traits determined by a person's DNA.
Environmental Factors
Those "nonbiological" factors that are involved in a person's surroundings such as the nature of the person's parents, the person's friends, and the person's behavioral choices.
Spiritual Factors
The factors in a person's life that are determined by the quality of his or her relationship with God.
Gene
A section of DNA that codes for the production of a protein or a portion of a protein, thereby causing a trait.
Messenger RNA
The RNA that performs transcription.
Anticodon
A three-nuleotide base sequese on tRNA.
Codon
A sequence of three nucleotide bases on mRNA that refers to a specific amino acid.
Chromosome
DNA coiled around and supported by proteins, found in the nucleus of the cell.
Mitosis
A process of asexual reproduction in eukaryotic cell.
Interphase
The time interval between cellular reproduction.
Mother Cell
A cell ready to begin reproduction, containing duplicated DNA and centrioles.
Centromere
The region that joins two sister chromatides.
Karyotype
The figure produce when the chromosomes of a species during metaphase are arranged according to their homologous pairs.
Diploid Cell
A cell with chromosomes that come in homologous pairs.
Haploid Cell
A cell that has only one representative of each chromosome pair.
Diploid Number (2n)
The total number of chromosomes in a diploid cell.
Haploid Number (n)
the number of homologous pairs in a diploid cell.
Meiosis
The process by which a diploid (2n) cell forms gametes (n).
Gametes
Haploid cells (n) produced by diploid cells (2n) for the purpose of sexual reproduction.
Virus
A non-cellular infectious agent that has two characteristics: (1) It has genetic material (RNA or DNA) inside a protective protein coat. (2) It cannot reproduce on its own.
Antibodies
Specialized proteins that aid in destroying infectious agents.
Vaccine
A weakened or inactive version of a pathogen that stimulates the body's production of antibodies which can aid in destroying the pathogen.