26 terms

Geography key terms; Development and human welfare

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Affluence
The general level of prosperity enjoyed by a population.
Appropriate aid
Know‐how and equipment that are suited to the basic conditions prevailing in the receiving country.
Birth rate
The number of births in a year per 1000 of the total population.
BRIC
The 4 countries of Brazil, Russia, India and China. All are emerging economies.
Core - Periphery
The most economically / politically dominant area in a country or region is referred to as the 'core'. Periphery areas are more isolated, have fewer businesses and well paid jobs and are less politically influential.
Death rate
The number of deaths in a year per 1000 of the total population.
Debt relief
When HICs, and banks in HICs, write‐off some LIC country debt so the LIC has to pay less back.
Development
The progress of a country in terms of economic growth, the use of technology and human welfare.
Development gap
The difference in standards of living and wellbeing between the world's richest and poorest countries (between HICs and LICs).
Disparity
Any difference between one group of people, or region, and another.
Emerging economy
Countries which are developing and industrializing rapidly. They are MICs which are seeing their per capita GNI grow rapidly. Examples include Brazil, India, China, Mexico and Malaysia.
Fair trade
When producers in LICs are given a better price for the goods they produce. Often this is form farm products like cocoa, coffee or cotton. The better price improves income and reduces exploitation.
Free trade
When trade between countries is not restricted by, for example, import duties or not being a member of a group of trading nations.
Gross domestic product (GDP)
The total value of goods and services produced by a country during a year. When expressed as per head of population (per capita), it provides a widely used measure of national prosperity and development.
Gross National Income (GNI)
GNI is very similar to GDP, but GNI takes into account that some countries are in debt and pay money in debt interest. This reduces GNI relative to GDP.
Human development index (HDI)
Used as a measure of development in a country and for making international comparisons.
Human welfare
The general condition of a population in terms of diet, housing, healthcare, education, etc.
Infant mortality rate
The average number of deaths of infants under 1 year of age, per 1000 live births, per year.
Intermediate technology
The simple, easily learned and maintained technology used in a range of economic activities serving local needs in LICs.
Life expectancy
The average number of years a person might be expected to live.
Literacy
The ability to read and write. In HICs literacy rates are often around 99% of the adult population, but in LICs they are much lower
NIC
Newly Industrialized Country. These are countries which have developed rapidly over the last 20‐30 years are moved from being LICs to MICs. The term is very similar to 'emerging economy'.
North‐South divide
A way of dividing the world up into the richer 'North' (HICs) and poorer 'South' (LICs and MICs); it can be thought of as the worlds' 'haves' and 'have nots'.
Political freedom
Whether people in a country have the right to vote in fair elections and speak freely. It is often seem as an important part of development.
Poverty
When people lack the income needed to have a reasonable quality of life.
Quality of life
Difficult to define, but it is often thought of as an umbrella term that takes into account GDP and human welfare.