How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

29 terms

Organic Molecules- Carbohydrates

STUDY
PLAY
Carbohydrates
Contain the atoms C, H, O in a 1:2:1 ratio. Used for energy, for structure and some are building blocks of RNA and DNA. Deoxyribose, ribose, Fructose, galactose, glucose
Carbon backbone
Can be straight chains, branching chains, or ring structures.
Cellulose
Polysaccharide. Polymer of glucose. Contributes to the structure of plant cell walls.
Chitin
Polysaccharide. Polymer of glucose. Found in the exoskeleton of crustaceans and insects.
Dehydration synthesis
A chemical reaction in which molecules are joined together to build larger molcules. A water molecule is removed between the two seperate molecules in the process.
Deoxyribose
A monosaccharide building block of DNA
Dimer
A molecule composed of two monomers.
Disaccharides
Two monosaccharides combined through dehydration synthesis. Examples: Lactose, sucrose, maltose
Double covalent bond
Bonds in which two electrons are being shared from each of the atoms forming the bond. C=C
Fructose
A monosaccharide. Found in fruit. Can be converted into energy by our cells.
Functional groups
Groups of atoms that grant special characteristics to a molecule when they are attached to the carbon backbone. Amino, hydroxyl, carboxyl, aldehyde, ketone, phosphate, sulfhydryl
Galactose
A monosaccharide. Makes up the disaccharide lactose found in milk. Can be converted to energy by our cells.
Glucose
A monosaccharide. Found in our blood. Can be converted to useful chemical energy for cells.
Glycogen
A polysaccharide. A polymer of glucose. Carbohydrate storage molecule in animals. Stored in the liver and muscle cells.
Hydrolysis
A breakdown reaction that requires the addition of water. Ex. Breakdown of a disaccharide to a monosaccharide
Hydrophyllic
When a molecule is attracted to water it is called _____. Carbohydrates are an example of ______ molecules. These molecules are polar and have charges
Hydrophobic
When a molecule is repelled by water it is called _____. Lipids are an example of ______ molecules. These molecules are not polar and do not have charges.
Isomers
Molecules with the same molecular formula but different molecular structure.
Lactose
A disaccharide. Glucose + Galactose. Found in milk.
Lipids
Another name for fats or hydrophobic molecules.
Maltose
A disaccharide. Glucose + Glucose. End result of starch hydrolysis.
Monomer
1 single building block or sub-unit of a larger molecule (marcromolecule)
Monosaccharides
Monomers of carbohydrates
Organic molecules
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. Must contain at least C and H.
Polymer
A molecule that contains three or more monomers
Polysaccharide
Many monosaccharides linked together.
Ex. starch, cellulose, glycogen, and chitin.
Ribose
A monosaccharide. One of the building blocks of RNA.
Starch
A polymer of glucose. A polysaccharide. Carbohydrate storage molecule of plants.
Sucrose
A disaccharide formed by dehydration synthesis. Glucose + Fructose