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AP World History Unit II Study Guide

"World Civilizations: The Global Experience: Fifth Edition" Chapters 7-15 Mixon KMHS
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Muhammad's Flight to Mecca
622
Ayan
Rule landholding elite
Pressure for change in pre-Islamic society
Greater Byzantine and sasanian control over arabic tribes of the peninsula and Arabic migration to Mesopotamia
Bedouins
Arabic camel nomads
Ridda
Wars to defeat rival prophets and restore unity of Islam
5 pillars of Islam
1-confession of faith
2-prayer to Mecca 5 times a day
3-fasting during Ramadan
4-zakat: giving to poor. Charity
5-hajj: pilgrimage if you can afford
Nature of Bedouin society
Except for some sedentary agriculture in south, there was little art or architecture ad the chief focus was on oral poetry.
Nature of islamic religion in southeast Asia
-Becaise islam came from India, it was spread -by Sufis, holy men
-devoleped mystical nature that incorporated much of indigenous religions
Date Muslims came to India
711
Succession disputes in Islam
Succession disputes led to build up of personal armies often of slave soldiers
Literary figures of Abbasid empire
Sa'di
Firdawsi
Ibn'rushd
Omar Khayyam

**womwn often married at puberty--age 9
Hinduism Challenges of Islam
Placed greater emphasis on devotional (bhaktic) cults of gods and goddesses (ie shiva and Vishnu)
Berbers
-native desert dwellers of north Africa
-part of group from puritanical reform movements almashids and almashads
Askia
Military title taken by later rulers of Songhay
Political organization of Kongo
Confederation of smaller dates brought together under control of king and divided into 8 provinces
African societies unaffected by Christianity
did not have a system of writing
Economies of Africa
-trade handled by professional merchants
-NorthAfrica fully involved in Mediterranean and Arabic economic systems
-settled agriculture and iron working established
-stateless societies found it difficult to maintain long distance trade
Hagia Sophia
great church built in Constantinople by Justinian
Significance of Byzantine empire
-its development of orthodox christianity that broke off from Roman in 1054
-empire's ability to survive for almost 1000 years
-ability to spread its culture
-capital was major urban center
Basil II
emperor that became renowned in the 11th century as the slayer of the Bulgarians
Strengths of Byzantine cultural life
-richly colored mosaics
-painted icons
-certain amount of diversity
-dome buildings adapted from roman style
Conquest of Kievan Russia
the mongols/tatars were responsible for this
Moldboard
-technological innovation
-plow thatallowed deeper turning of soil
Expansion of Christianityin Europe
Iceland
Greenland
Spain
Eastern Germany
Poland
Holy Roman Emperors after 10th century
rule became increasingly hollow because they did not build a solid monarchy for regional foundations
Manorial System
-obligations bore heavily on serfs
-practically self sufficient
-agricultural production low
-originated in Roman Empire
Tambos
way station along roads in Incan Empire
Aztec women and position
spent many hours grinding grain for food because there wasno wheel
Aztec cities fighting for control
Culhuacan
Azcapotzalco
Texcoco
Tlacopan
Nature of Aztec economy
-Aztec state redistributed many goods recieved trough tribute
-specialized merchant class
women in Tang-Song Era
assertion of male dominance in family was especially pronounced
Sui dynasty
dynasty that entered period of political chaos after the fall of the Qin Han
Tang emperors toward Confucian Scholar
suppoorted rebirth of Confucian scholar gentry often at theexpense of the aristocracy
Cultural traits introduced into Veitnam
-Chinese military organization
-Chinese-styled schools
-Chinese agricultural cropping techniques and irrigation
-Chinese examination system and beaurocracy
Rise of Samurai on the peasantry
Japanese peasants reduced to status of serfs bound to the land they worked
Tale of Genji
lifein imperial court of Heian
Status of Mongolian women Yuan dynasty
-Mongolian women remained relativelyindeppendent
-refused to practice footbinding
-retained rights and property
Mongol conquest of Song China
proved one of toughest areas for Mongols to conquer
Ekaterinberg Mongol invasion
city that profitted mostfrom Mongol invasion
Ming dynasty
dynasty that succeeded Mongol-Yuan
Cessation of trade under Ming dynasty
in Chinese terms, a brief emphasis on trading and commerce that was unusual not cessational
Symptoms of decline of Arabic Caliphate
-decline in tax revenue for state
-landlords ceased to experiment with new agricultural techniques
-landlords seized power over peasants
-narrowing of intellectual life symbolizedby triumph of religion
Status of artisans Abbasid cities
artisans were free men who owned their own tools andcreated guilde-like organizations to neggotiate wages
Reasons for nonconversions in Islam
would have had to share booty and would have lost tax revenue
Mahmud of Ghazni
descendent of turkish slave dynasty in Afghanistanwhich led a series of expaditions into India to siezegold and such
Common cultural traits of East African Coast
Bantu-based and Arab-influenced Swahilli language
Political and religious universality in Africa
neither universal state Christianity and Islam found adherence in Africa
Justinian's positive contributions
-allowed for new architectural innovation
-systemization of Roman ligal code
-rebuilding of Constantinople
-construction og Hagia Sophia
Tatar invasion of Russia
Tatar supervision didn't destroy Russian Christianity or nativeRussian aristocracy
Peter Alderlard
Persian scholar who was the author of "Yes and No" and utilizes logic to examine ecclesiatical doctrine
dates of Toltec Empire
lasted until 1150
Era of Division
period of political disorder and chaotic warfare that followed the Qin-Han Era
Buddhist Monks
group that threatened the security of Japanese imperial court that imperial court moved to Heian
Methods to keep Mongols and Chinese separate
-Mongols forbidden to marry ethnic Chinese
-Chinese scholar couldn'tlearn Mongol language
-military forces kept separate
-only women from nomadic tribe selected for imperial herum
year Ming halted voyages
1433
status of women in Bedouin society
enjoyed greater freedom and higher status than Byzantine and Persian women
Groups responsible for Islamic conversion
traders
merchants
Sufi mystics
causes of split to Caltolocism and Orthodox
-icons
-Roman Catholic practice of requiring celebacy for priests
Feudal monarchy in England
introduced abruptlt following 1066, while French feudal monarchy developed slower
Andean civilization
religious practicemost closely associated with state and person was Sun god
Zhu Xi and neo-Confician Song
most prominent of all neo-Confucian scholars bades in Japan among warrior elites
Decline of Tang dynasty
corresponded with development of regional power
Basic unit of Mongol society
tribe
Beginnings of Renaissance
begins in Italy
Political and religious successorin Islam
caliph
Islamic invasions of India
withmuslims, people of india encountered for the first time a large scale influx of invadors with a civilization as sophisticated as their own
Juula
African traders associated with the Mali empire
Muhammad ibn Qasim
commander of first Islamic incusion into the send in 711