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require more specific things of us and impose obligations that are not universal, locates moral rules in a relationship of faithfulness between people or between individuals and God
doing good despite obstacles even at the risk of one's life, related to patience and perserverance
restriaining natural desires and appetites, allows experience of pleasure within reasonable limits, moderation but not necessarily abstinence
Beginner: avoid anti-Christian ideas
Advanced: evaluate all things in life in light of Christian values and belief
Perfect: experience special gifts from Holy Spirit
Beginner: shift attention from earthly things to eternal things
Advanced: no longer preoccupied with anxiety about the future
Perfect: does not fear death, only the Lord
Beginner: one performs basic acts of worship
Advanced: loves others in God
Perfect: love of even enemies, perfect forgiveness
challenge and problem for the other 2 approaches, virtues themselves aren't relative to culture
instead of searching for the good life and cultivating virtues, the Hebrews were concerned with this
God's promise and love
Jesus replaced the ethic of his contemporaries with an ethic associated with this
1. foundation for ethical life
2. human merit and divine rewards
3. who actually are the people of God
4. the intent of the law
Four ethical issues over which Jesus disagreed with his contemporaries
Strengths of natural law
Not limited by competing religious texts as sources of divine commands.
Universal scope that applies to all human beings, regardless of religion
Affirms that moral standards are based in reality and are in some sense, "objective"
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