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Brown v. Board of Education

court found that segregation was a violation of the Equal Protection clause "separate but equal" has no place

Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education

the schools had to be intergraded based on the percentage of blacks in the whole district This cause a great push-back from middle America, who saw the end of the neighborhood school

Roe v. Wade

(1973) legalized abortion on the basis of a woman's right to privacy

14th Amendment

incorporates the Bill of Rights to state laws and gives equal rights to african-americans

Voting Rights Act of 1965

national legislation in the United States that outlawed discriminatory voting practices that had been responsible for the widespread disenfranchisement of African Americans

Martin Luther King, Jr.

was an American clergyman, activist, and prominent leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement.

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

is an African-American civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909.

Civil Rights Act (1964)

legislation in the United States that outlawed major forms of discrimination against African Americans and women, including racial segregation. It ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and by facilities that served the general public

Montgomery Bus Boycott

was a political and social protest campaign that started in 1955 in Montgomery, Alabama, United States, intended to oppose the city's policy of racial segregation on its public transit system

Civil Rights Movement

The civil rights movement was a worldwide political movement for equality before the law for african-americans and women occurring between approximately 1950 and 1980

Freedom Rides

Freedom Riders were civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States to test the United States Supreme Court decisions Boynton v. Virginia (1960) and Irene Morgan v. Commonwealth of Virginia (1946)

Reasonableness Standard

The reasonableness standard looks at delinquency, default or early termination based on the anticipated or actual harm caused by such delinquency, default or early termination; the difficulties in proving the loss; and finally the inconvenience in finding a solution.


the standard by which a law is allowed to stand because it is reasonably related to a legitimate government interest

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