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Earth History Vocabulary Part 2
Terms in this set (20)
The act in which earth is worn away, often by water, wind, or ice or the process that breaks things down. It's the breakdown of the continents and the land around you.
The act or process of pushing or thrusting out. When lava on the Earth's surface hardens to form a layer of rock. (rocks that formed from lava on the surface of the earth)
the time required for half of an element's atoms in a sample to change to the decay product. In each of these only half of the remaining radioactive atoms decay.
A rock formed when magma cools and becomes solid, it may do this above or below the Earth's surface. Magma can be forced into rocks, blown out in volcanic explosions or forced to the surface as lava. Made by heating them up in the earths core.
The rock formed by the cooling and solidifying of molten rock. Magma (molten rock) emerging as a liquid onto the Earth's surface.
Law of superposition
This law states that the youngest layer of sediment is on top and the oldest on bottom, each layer being younger than the one beneath it and older than the one above it.
Molten rock material that occurs below Earth's surface. When it erupts onto the surface, it is known as lava. Lava is the name for molten rock that has erupted onto the Earth's surfacethe red-hot material spilling from volcanoes.
A rock formed by pressure deep under the Earth's surface, from the extreme heat caused by magma or by the intense collisions and friction of tectonic plates. (Made by either heating up or squashing the earth's crust)
A technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, in which trace radioactive impurities were selectively incorporated when they formed.
A method of determining the age of an object by measuring the amount of a specific radioactive isotope it contains.
A repeated series of events by which rock gradually and continually changes between igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic forms. Igneous rocks are formed from magma. Magma cools & solidifies into rock. Time & weather break the rock down into smaller and smaller pieces. Wind and water carry the smaller pieces of igneous rocks into sediment beds. Over time the sediment beds get buried & the pieces of rock become cemented together to form a new type of rock called a sedimentary rock.
Solid material (rocks) that is moved and deposited in a new location. A natural material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is then moved by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.
A rock formed by sediment that is deposited over time, usually as layers at the bottom of lakes and oceans. This rock forms layers called strata which can often be seen in exposed cliffs. These rocks are made up of pieces of pre-existing rocks that have been broken off due to weathering.
A break in the geologic record created when rock layers are eroded or when sediment is not deposited for a long period of time. A buried erosion surface separating two rock masses or strata of different ages, indicating that sediment deposition was not continuous. (can be called a "missing" rock layer)
The process that moves large bodies of Earth materials to higher elevations. Vertical elevation of the Earth's surface in response to natural causes. (broad, relatively slow and gentle, associated with earthquakes and mountain building)
A cold-blooded vertebrate that lays eggs and has lungs and scaly skin. Some examples are snakes, alligators, crocodiles, tortoises, lizards, etc.
A warm-blooded vertebrate animal of a class that is distinguished by the possession of hair or fur, the secretion of milk by females for the nourishment of the young, and the birth of live young. They live in all sorts of environments including the ocean, underground, and on land. Some mammals, bats for example, can even fly.
An igneous rock layer formed when magma hardens beneath Earth's surface. Forms when magma hardens beneath Earth's surface - Slow cooling, coarse, large crystals will form.
A bend in rock that is the response to compressional forces. They are most visible in rocks that contain layering. Occurs when compression from the sides causes plastic deformation of rock layers.
(The Study of the Earth) An earth science including the study of solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change. The study of the physical nature, structure, and history of the earth.
A rupture on the crust that allows hot lava, ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. Form near tectonic boundaries, they can also form in areas that contain abnormally hot rock inside the Earth. Hot liquid rock under the Earth's surface is known as magma/lava.
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