28 terms

PSYC 260 Chapter 9

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

altruism
any behavior that is designed to increase another person's welfare, and particularly those actions that do not seem to provide a direct reward to the person who performs them
reciprocal altruism
the idea that, if we help other people now, they will return the favor should we need their help in the future
reciprocity norm
a social norm reminding us that we should follow the principles of reciprocal altruism—if someone helps us, then we should help them in the future, and we should help people now with the expectation that they will help us later if we need it; culturally universal and people tend to follow this rule
social responsibility norm
we should try to help others who need assistance, even without any expectation of future paybacks; involves a sense of duty and obligation, in which people are expected to respond to others by giving help to those in need
personal distress
the negative emotions that we may experience when we view another person's suffering
empathy
an affective response in which a person understands, and even feels, another person's distress and experiences events the way the other person does; seems to be a biological aspect of human nature—an emotion that is an integral part of being human—and that is designed to help us help; allows us to quickly and automatically perceive and understand the emotional states of others and to regulate our behavior toward others in coordinated and cooperative ways; may also create other emotions, such as sympathy, compassion, and tenderness
pluralistic ignorance
occurs when people think that others in their environment have information that they do not have and when they base their judgments on what they think the others are thinking
diffusion of responsibility
occurs when we assume that others will take action and therefore we do not take action ourselves
altruistic or prosocial personality
people who are indeed more helpful than others across a variety of situations
just world beliefs
beliefs that people get what they deserve in life
dependency oriented help
when the recipient feels that the implication of the helping is that they are unable to care for themselves; leads to negative feelings
autonomy-oriented help
partial and temporary and provides information to the other; for instance, by giving instructions or guidance or providing ideas about how to help oneself
kinship
we are particularly helpful to our kin; according to evolutionary principles, this degree of genetic closeness should be positively correlated with the likelihood that we will help each of those people
social exchange
we frequently use each other to gain rewards and to help protect ourselves from harm, and helping is one type of benefit that we can provide to others
dangerous, long-term commitment
costs of helping are particularly high when the situation is ________ or involves __________.
positive moods
what sort of moods increase helping? This is because this mood indicates that the environment is not dangerous and therefore that we can safely help others, we like other people more when we are in these moods, and that may lead us to help them, helping increases the possibility that the helping makes us feel good about ourselves, thereby maintaining this mood
guilt
experience this emotion increases our desire to create positive relationships with other people; because we hate to feel this way, we will go out of our way to help in order to reduce any negative feelings that we may be experiencing
model of helping (Latane and Darley)
a model of helping that took into consideration the important role of the social situation; considers the levels of noticing the event, interpreting the event, assuming responsibility, and knowing how to assist
noticing
part of Latane and Darley's model of helping; this is the first step in order to get help and involves people witnessing a person in need; when more people are around, this decreases
interpreting
part of Latane and Darley's model of helping; events are frequently ambiguous, and this step involves processing them to understand what they really mean; we often don't see the whole event unfolding, so it is difficult to get a good handle on it, we also tend to assume events are benign b/c emergencies are rare
taking responsibility
part of Latane and Darley's model of helping; this is critical to making sure that we help even if we recognize that there is a dangerous situation happening; when we see others around, it is easy to assume that they are going to do something and that we don't need to do anything
implementing action
part of Latane and Darley's model of helping; knowing how to help, ex. people who do have training in how to act in emergencies are more likely to help, whereas the rest of us just don't know what to do and therefore may simply walk by
prosocial behavior
any act performed with the goal of benefitting another person
social exchange theory
the idea that we keep track of rewards and costs of social exchange

>rewards may be internal or external
>guilt motivates us to help
>social norm: help b/c it is the right thing to do
kin selection
we are more likely to help people related to us because it helps propagate our own genes; we want to increase the chances of our relatives having children
empathy-altruism hypothesis
the idea that empathy causes people to help out of the goodness of their hearts; empathy is the key motivational factor of altruism
evolutionary psychology, social exchange theory, empathy altruism hypothesis
what are the three basic motives underlying prosocial behavior
situational pressure, gender, culture, current mood
individual differences that predict helping behavior?