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Sigmund Freud

the founder of the psychodynamic thoery

Psychanalytic Theory

this psychological perspective focuses on finding repressed memories in the unconscious

Unconscious Mind

that part of the mind wherein psychological activity takes place of which the person is unaware


Freud used this dissociative technique combined with age regression to help uncover unconscious memories

Free Association

psychoanalytic technique in which a patient is encouraged to say whatever comes to their mind in order to reveal unconscious thoughts and emotions, such as traumatic experiences that have been repressed

Freudian Slip

An unintentional error in speech regarded as revealing subconscious feelings

Manifest Content

this is the obvious content of our dreams

Latent Content

this is the hidden content of our dreams that psychoanalytic psychologists would subjectively analyze to determine repressed memories


part of the unconscious, that is the source of instinctive impulses and seeks satisfaction in accordance with the pleasure principle

Pleasure Principle

The instinctive drive to seek pleasure and avoid pain


The part of the mind that mediates between the conscious and the unconscious and follows the reality principle

reality principle

this refers to the egos striving to satisfy the id's desires in realistic and socially appropriate ways.


The part of a person's mind that acts as a self-critical conscience, reflecting social standards learned from parents and teachers

ideal principle

this is the desired behavior of the ego according to the superego

psychosexual stages

this is a central element of psychoanalytic theory, that says human beings, from birth, possess an instinctual libido that develops in five stages; the oral, the anal, the phallic, the latent, and the genital; and each is characterized by the erogenous zone that is the source of the libidinal drive

erogenous zones

any area of the body especially sensitive to sexual stimulation

oral stage

Freud's first stage of psychosexual development where the primary sexual focus is on the mouth through sucking, tasting, and verbalizing

anal stage

Freud's second stage of psychosexual development where the primary sexual focus is on the elimination or holding onto feces. The stage is often thought of as representing a child's ability to control his or her own world

phallic stage

Freud's third stage of psychosexual development where the primary sexual focus is on symbolism of the genitals

oedipus complex

The complex of emotions aroused in a young boy, typically around the age of four, by an unconscious sexual desire for their mother and a wish to exclude their father

electra comples

The complex of emotions aroused in a young girl, typically around the age of four, by an unconscious sexual desire for their father and a wish to exclude their mother


an interesting phenomena that Freud found amonst his patients. It is when they take on similar roles and personalities of others, but especially their therapists.


In Freud's theory of psychosexual development, the failure to complete a stage successfully which results in a continuation of that stage into later adulthood

latency stage

Freud's fourth stage of psychosexual development where sexuality is repressed in the unconscious and children focus on identifying with their same sex parent and interact with same sex peers

defense mechanisms

According to freud these are psychological forces which prevent undesirable or inappropriate impulses from entering consciousness


the defense mechanism whereby our thoughts are pulled out of our consciousness and into our unconscious


A defense mechanism where one reverts to an earlier stage of development

reaction formation

A defense mechanism where unacceptable impulses are converted to their opposite, like I love you, becomes I hate you


a defense mechanism that involves taking our own unacceptable qualities or feelings and ascribing them to other people. For example, if you have a strong dislike for someone, you might instead believe that he or she does not like you


A defense mechanism where one believes or states an acceptable explanation for a behavior as opposed to the real explanation, like I got fired because I wouldn't kiss my boss butt, not I'm lazy and show up to late for work all the time


a defense mechanism that shifts the emotional component from one object or idea to another, you are angry at your mom so you take out your anger on yoru sister


this is a defense mechanism in which there is an outright refusal to admit or recognize that something has occurred or is currently occurring. Drug addicts or alcoholics often refuse to believe that they have a problem

neo freudians

these psychologists were a group of loosely linked American theorists of the mid-twentieth century, who were all influenced by Sigmund Freud, and extended his theories, often in social or cultural directions, they include Carl Jung, Alfred Adler,Erik Erikson and Karen Horney

alfred adler

this neo-freudians chief contributions are the importance of birth order in the formation of personality, and the notion of a "self perfecting" drive within human beings that may lead to inferiority complexes

karen horney

this neo-freudian criticized Freud's concept of penis envy saying it was innacurate of women and argued that men experience womb envy

inferiority complex

An unrealistic feeling of general inadequacy caused by actual or supposed inferiority in one sphere, sometimes marked by aggressive behavior in compensation

penis envy

the desire of girls to posses a penis and therefore have the power that being male represents

carl jung

this neo-freudian proposed and developed the concepts of the extroverted and introverted personality, archetypes, and the collective unconscious

collective unconscious

According to Jung, the content of the unconscious mind that is passed down from generation to generation in all humans

psychdynamic theory

A modern adaptation of psychoanalytic therapy which has made sometimes minor and sometimes major changes to Freud's original theories

projective tests

psychological procedures used to measure personality which rely on ambiguous stimuli, examples include the TAT and Rorschach inkblot test. They are very subjective

henry murray

this psychologist created the thematic apercepion test

thematic apperception test

A subjective personality test where ambiguous pictures are shown to a subject and they are asked to tell a story related to them

rorschach inkblot test

A projective technique utilizing ambiguous inkblots as stimuli.

case study

Psychanalytic psychologists use these individual in-depth studies of their patients that include observing and interviewing patients


Carl Jung believed the collective unconscious was made up of these universal role models


Alfred Adler claimed that our sense of inferiority derived from our struggle to obtain this, or a feeling that we are better than others


a defense mechanism that allows us to act out unacceptable impulses by converting these behaviors into a more acceptable form. For example, a person experiencing extreme anger might take up kick-boxing as a means of venting frustration

genital stage

Freud's final stage of psychosexual development where healthy sexual development is defined as attraction to a same aged, opposite sexed peer


This defense mechanism allows us to avoid thinking about the stressful, emotional aspect of the situation and instead focus only on the intellectual component. For example, a person who has just been diagnosed with a terminal illness might focus on learning everything about the disease in order to avoid distress and remain distant from the reality of the situation

birth order

Alfred Adler suppossed that the oldest child may be impacted by younger siblings because they no longer get the attention they once had and as a result experience inferiority. The middle child is the most well adjusted and most ablet to strive for superiority. The youngest child has the last power and therefore may feel inferior

womb envy

this is the unexpressed anxiety that some men feel in natural envy of the biological functions of women like pregnancy, parturition, breast feeding

personal unconscious

this is what Carl Jung called Freud's theory of the unconscious

sibling rivalry

this is the competition between brothers or sisters for parental approval

abraham maslow

this is the founder of the humanistic perspective

carl rogers

This humanistic psychologist created client centered therapy to provide his patients with genuiness, unconditional positive regard, and empathy to help them grow

humanistic psychology

this psychological perspective argues that all humans strive to reach their full potential

hierarchy of needs

Abraham Maslow developed this theory to explain the process by which a healthy personality is formed by becoming self-actualized


this means we have reached our full potential

unconditional positive regard

according to carl rogers this is the complete acceptance that we need to be able to grow


according to carl rogers, to grow we need people who have this, or can relate to our emotional responses


according to carl rogers, this is our inner personality and is how we view ourselves and is determined by a combination of our childhood experiences and our environment

ideal self

according to carl rogers this is who we would like to be


humanistic theory has been criticized because it only is supported by this type of society

real self

according to carl rogers, this is who how we see ourselves


according to carl rogers, we experience this when our ideal self and our real self don't match

Gordon Allport

this man founded trait theory


these are characteristic patterns of behavior, thinking, and emotion

myers briggs type indicator

this is a personality inventory based on the theories of Carl Jung, it includes 8 different personality traits

trait theory

this personality theory attempts to understand what personality characteristics we have, not necessarily how we get them. (although the assumption is that they are genetic)

factor analysis

this statistical technique is used to take many variables and narrow them down to a few, it is commonly used to develop theories on intelligence and personality

personality inventory

this is an objective questionnaire that is used to measure the traits of an individual, the most common one is the MMPI

minnesota multiphasic personality inventory

this is the most commonly used personality inventory and is used primarily to determine clinical traits involved in abnormal behaviors

social desirability

one major flaw in personality inventories is this, when people give answers they think are publicly acceptable


individuals with this trait are more likely to trust information that is in the present, tangible and concrete: that is, information that can be understood by the five senses

costa and mccrae

these psychologists created the big 5 theory

big 5

openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, neuroticism


this is the mnemonic device used to help remember the big 5 traits

raymond cattell

this man created the 16 PF inventory

person-situation controversy

Walter Mischel challenged trait theory with this idea that our personality traits depend on the situation we are in


individuals with this trait tend to decide things from a more detached standpoint, measuring the decision by what seems reasonable, logical, causal, consistent and matching a given set of rules

walter mischel

this man challenged trait theory with the idea of the person-situation controversy and later the marshmallow test

marshmallow experiment

this was done to see if children could delay gratification or not, those that can tend to do better on the SAT and in school later

delayed gratification

this is our ability to wait for something we want


individuals with this trait prefer to reflect on something, then act, then reflect again and need quiet time alone, away from activity


individuals with this trait tend to act, reflect, then act again and prefer to be with others

16 pf

this was a personality theory and inventory created by raymond cattell

cardinal trait

This is the trait that dominates and shapes a person's behavior. These are rare as most people lack a single theme that shapes their lives.Many famous people have these named after them, Freudian, Machiavellian, Don Juan

central trait

These are the general characteristics that form the basic foundations of personality but are not as dominating as cardinal traits, but are the major characteristics you might use to describe another person


individuals with this trait tend to come to decisions by associating or empathizing with the situation, looking at it 'from the inside' and weighing the situation to achieve, on balance, the greatest harmony, consensus and fit, considering the needs of the people involved

secondary trait

These are the traits that are sometimes related to attitudes or preferences and often appear only in certain situations or under specific circumstances

personalty type

this is defined as a collection of personality traits that are thought to occur together consistently


this trait refers to an enduring tendency to experience negative emotional states

hans eysenck

this psyhologist created the three factor theory on personality


this trait refers to a personality pattern typified by aggressiveness and interpersonal hostility

surface trait

according to raymond cattell these are traits that are easy to see immediately like shyness or sociability and are dependent upon the situation or environment

source trait

these are the personality dimension or type of personality which underlies a person's trait personality


individuals with this personality trait tend to trust information that is more abstract or theoretical, that can be associated with other information and may be more interested in future possibilities. They tend to trust flashes of insight that seem to bubble up from the unconscious mind

albert bandura

this psychologist argued that personality's are shaped through reciprocal determinism and feelings of self-efficacy and locus of control

observational learning

the theory of albert bandura that was we watch others and imitate or model their behavior

social cognitive perspective

albert bandura follows this perspective


this is another term for learning

reciprocal determinism

according to Albert Bandura, a person's behavior both influences and is influenced by personal factors and the social environment.

self efficacy

according to bandura, this is our belief in our abilities to accomplish a task

locus of control

according to bandura, this refers to the sense of power that we have over as situation

external locus of control

according to bandura if we have this, we feel as if we have no power over a situation and that it is out of our hands and results in weak self-efficacy

internal locus of control

according to bandura if we have this, we feel as if we have complete power over a situation and have high levels of self-efficacy

martin seligman

this psychologists studied learned helplessness in dogs

learned helplessness

this is a psychological state where people feel powerless to change their self or situation in which a person feels as if change is not possible and eventually gives up

optimisitc attributional style

from the cognitive perspective, individuals with this see the world in a positive light

pessimistic attributional style

from the cognitive perspective, individuals with this see theworld in a negative light

possible selves

this is defined as an individuals' ideas of what they might become, what they would like to become, or what they are afraid of becoming

splotlight effect

this refers to our tendency to think that other people are watching us more closely than they actually are

self serving bias

this occurs when people attribute their successes to internal or personal factors but attribute their failures to situational factors beyond their control

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