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114 terms

Unit 5 Personality

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Sigmund Freud
the founder of the psychodynamic thoery
Psychanalytic Theory
this psychological perspective focuses on finding repressed memories in the unconscious
Unconscious Mind
that part of the mind wherein psychological activity takes place of which the person is unaware
Hypnosis
Freud used this dissociative technique combined with age regression to help uncover unconscious memories
Free Association
psychoanalytic technique in which a patient is encouraged to say whatever comes to their mind in order to reveal unconscious thoughts and emotions, such as traumatic experiences that have been repressed
Freudian Slip
An unintentional error in speech regarded as revealing subconscious feelings
Manifest Content
this is the obvious content of our dreams
Latent Content
this is the hidden content of our dreams that psychoanalytic psychologists would subjectively analyze to determine repressed memories
ID
part of the unconscious, that is the source of instinctive impulses and seeks satisfaction in accordance with the pleasure principle
Pleasure Principle
The instinctive drive to seek pleasure and avoid pain
Ego
The part of the mind that mediates between the conscious and the unconscious and follows the reality principle
reality principle
this refers to the egos striving to satisfy the id's desires in realistic and socially appropriate ways.
superego
The part of a person's mind that acts as a self-critical conscience, reflecting social standards learned from parents and teachers
ideal principle
this is the desired behavior of the ego according to the superego
psychosexual stages
this is a central element of psychoanalytic theory, that says human beings, from birth, possess an instinctual libido that develops in five stages; the oral, the anal, the phallic, the latent, and the genital; and each is characterized by the erogenous zone that is the source of the libidinal drive
erogenous zones
any area of the body especially sensitive to sexual stimulation
oral stage
Freud's first stage of psychosexual development where the primary sexual focus is on the mouth through sucking, tasting, and verbalizing
anal stage
Freud's second stage of psychosexual development where the primary sexual focus is on the elimination or holding onto feces. The stage is often thought of as representing a child's ability to control his or her own world
phallic stage
Freud's third stage of psychosexual development where the primary sexual focus is on symbolism of the genitals
oedipus complex
The complex of emotions aroused in a young boy, typically around the age of four, by an unconscious sexual desire for their mother and a wish to exclude their father
electra comples
The complex of emotions aroused in a young girl, typically around the age of four, by an unconscious sexual desire for their father and a wish to exclude their mother
identfication
an interesting phenomena that Freud found amonst his patients. It is when they take on similar roles and personalities of others, but especially their therapists.
fixation
In Freud's theory of psychosexual development, the failure to complete a stage successfully which results in a continuation of that stage into later adulthood
latency stage
Freud's fourth stage of psychosexual development where sexuality is repressed in the unconscious and children focus on identifying with their same sex parent and interact with same sex peers
defense mechanisms
According to freud these are psychological forces which prevent undesirable or inappropriate impulses from entering consciousness
repression
the defense mechanism whereby our thoughts are pulled out of our consciousness and into our unconscious
regression
A defense mechanism where one reverts to an earlier stage of development
reaction formation
A defense mechanism where unacceptable impulses are converted to their opposite, like I love you, becomes I hate you
projection
a defense mechanism that involves taking our own unacceptable qualities or feelings and ascribing them to other people. For example, if you have a strong dislike for someone, you might instead believe that he or she does not like you
rationaliation
A defense mechanism where one believes or states an acceptable explanation for a behavior as opposed to the real explanation, like I got fired because I wouldn't kiss my boss butt, not I'm lazy and show up to late for work all the time
displacement
a defense mechanism that shifts the emotional component from one object or idea to another, you are angry at your mom so you take out your anger on yoru sister
denial
this is a defense mechanism in which there is an outright refusal to admit or recognize that something has occurred or is currently occurring. Drug addicts or alcoholics often refuse to believe that they have a problem
neo freudians
these psychologists were a group of loosely linked American theorists of the mid-twentieth century, who were all influenced by Sigmund Freud, and extended his theories, often in social or cultural directions, they include Carl Jung, Alfred Adler,Erik Erikson and Karen Horney
alfred adler
this neo-freudians chief contributions are the importance of birth order in the formation of personality, and the notion of a "self perfecting" drive within human beings that may lead to inferiority complexes
karen horney
this neo-freudian criticized Freud's concept of penis envy saying it was innacurate of women and argued that men experience womb envy
inferiority complex
An unrealistic feeling of general inadequacy caused by actual or supposed inferiority in one sphere, sometimes marked by aggressive behavior in compensation
penis envy
the desire of girls to posses a penis and therefore have the power that being male represents
carl jung
this neo-freudian proposed and developed the concepts of the extroverted and introverted personality, archetypes, and the collective unconscious
collective unconscious
According to Jung, the content of the unconscious mind that is passed down from generation to generation in all humans
psychdynamic theory
A modern adaptation of psychoanalytic therapy which has made sometimes minor and sometimes major changes to Freud's original theories
projective tests
psychological procedures used to measure personality which rely on ambiguous stimuli, examples include the TAT and Rorschach inkblot test. They are very subjective
henry murray
this psychologist created the thematic apercepion test
thematic apperception test
A subjective personality test where ambiguous pictures are shown to a subject and they are asked to tell a story related to them
rorschach inkblot test
A projective technique utilizing ambiguous inkblots as stimuli.
case study
Psychanalytic psychologists use these individual in-depth studies of their patients that include observing and interviewing patients
archetype
Carl Jung believed the collective unconscious was made up of these universal role models
superiority
Alfred Adler claimed that our sense of inferiority derived from our struggle to obtain this, or a feeling that we are better than others
sublimation
a defense mechanism that allows us to act out unacceptable impulses by converting these behaviors into a more acceptable form. For example, a person experiencing extreme anger might take up kick-boxing as a means of venting frustration
genital stage
Freud's final stage of psychosexual development where healthy sexual development is defined as attraction to a same aged, opposite sexed peer
intellectualization
This defense mechanism allows us to avoid thinking about the stressful, emotional aspect of the situation and instead focus only on the intellectual component. For example, a person who has just been diagnosed with a terminal illness might focus on learning everything about the disease in order to avoid distress and remain distant from the reality of the situation
birth order
Alfred Adler suppossed that the oldest child may be impacted by younger siblings because they no longer get the attention they once had and as a result experience inferiority. The middle child is the most well adjusted and most ablet to strive for superiority. The youngest child has the last power and therefore may feel inferior
womb envy
this is the unexpressed anxiety that some men feel in natural envy of the biological functions of women like pregnancy, parturition, breast feeding
personal unconscious
this is what Carl Jung called Freud's theory of the unconscious
sibling rivalry
this is the competition between brothers or sisters for parental approval
abraham maslow
this is the founder of the humanistic perspective
carl rogers
This humanistic psychologist created client centered therapy to provide his patients with genuiness, unconditional positive regard, and empathy to help them grow
humanistic psychology
this psychological perspective argues that all humans strive to reach their full potential
hierarchy of needs
Abraham Maslow developed this theory to explain the process by which a healthy personality is formed by becoming self-actualized
self-actualization
this means we have reached our full potential
unconditional positive regard
according to carl rogers this is the complete acceptance that we need to be able to grow
empathy
according to carl rogers, to grow we need people who have this, or can relate to our emotional responses
self-concept
according to carl rogers, this is our inner personality and is how we view ourselves and is determined by a combination of our childhood experiences and our environment
ideal self
according to carl rogers this is who we would like to be
individualism
humanistic theory has been criticized because it only is supported by this type of society
real self
according to carl rogers, this is who how we see ourselves
incongruence
according to carl rogers, we experience this when our ideal self and our real self don't match
Gordon Allport
this man founded trait theory
Traits
these are characteristic patterns of behavior, thinking, and emotion
myers briggs type indicator
this is a personality inventory based on the theories of Carl Jung, it includes 8 different personality traits
trait theory
this personality theory attempts to understand what personality characteristics we have, not necessarily how we get them. (although the assumption is that they are genetic)
factor analysis
this statistical technique is used to take many variables and narrow them down to a few, it is commonly used to develop theories on intelligence and personality
personality inventory
this is an objective questionnaire that is used to measure the traits of an individual, the most common one is the MMPI
minnesota multiphasic personality inventory
this is the most commonly used personality inventory and is used primarily to determine clinical traits involved in abnormal behaviors
social desirability
one major flaw in personality inventories is this, when people give answers they think are publicly acceptable
sensing
individuals with this trait are more likely to trust information that is in the present, tangible and concrete: that is, information that can be understood by the five senses
costa and mccrae
these psychologists created the big 5 theory
big 5
openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, neuroticism
ocean
this is the mnemonic device used to help remember the big 5 traits
raymond cattell
this man created the 16 PF inventory
person-situation controversy
Walter Mischel challenged trait theory with this idea that our personality traits depend on the situation we are in
thinking
individuals with this trait tend to decide things from a more detached standpoint, measuring the decision by what seems reasonable, logical, causal, consistent and matching a given set of rules
walter mischel
this man challenged trait theory with the idea of the person-situation controversy and later the marshmallow test
marshmallow experiment
this was done to see if children could delay gratification or not, those that can tend to do better on the SAT and in school later
delayed gratification
this is our ability to wait for something we want
introverted
individuals with this trait prefer to reflect on something, then act, then reflect again and need quiet time alone, away from activity
extroverted
individuals with this trait tend to act, reflect, then act again and prefer to be with others
16 pf
this was a personality theory and inventory created by raymond cattell
cardinal trait
This is the trait that dominates and shapes a person's behavior. These are rare as most people lack a single theme that shapes their lives.Many famous people have these named after them, Freudian, Machiavellian, Don Juan
central trait
These are the general characteristics that form the basic foundations of personality but are not as dominating as cardinal traits, but are the major characteristics you might use to describe another person
feeling
individuals with this trait tend to come to decisions by associating or empathizing with the situation, looking at it 'from the inside' and weighing the situation to achieve, on balance, the greatest harmony, consensus and fit, considering the needs of the people involved
secondary trait
These are the traits that are sometimes related to attitudes or preferences and often appear only in certain situations or under specific circumstances
personalty type
this is defined as a collection of personality traits that are thought to occur together consistently
neuroticism
this trait refers to an enduring tendency to experience negative emotional states
hans eysenck
this psyhologist created the three factor theory on personality
psychoticism
this trait refers to a personality pattern typified by aggressiveness and interpersonal hostility
surface trait
according to raymond cattell these are traits that are easy to see immediately like shyness or sociability and are dependent upon the situation or environment
source trait
these are the personality dimension or type of personality which underlies a person's trait personality
intuition
individuals with this personality trait tend to trust information that is more abstract or theoretical, that can be associated with other information and may be more interested in future possibilities. They tend to trust flashes of insight that seem to bubble up from the unconscious mind
albert bandura
this psychologist argued that personality's are shaped through reciprocal determinism and feelings of self-efficacy and locus of control
observational learning
the theory of albert bandura that was we watch others and imitate or model their behavior
social cognitive perspective
albert bandura follows this perspective
conditioning
this is another term for learning
reciprocal determinism
according to Albert Bandura, a person's behavior both influences and is influenced by personal factors and the social environment.
self efficacy
according to bandura, this is our belief in our abilities to accomplish a task
locus of control
according to bandura, this refers to the sense of power that we have over as situation
external locus of control
according to bandura if we have this, we feel as if we have no power over a situation and that it is out of our hands and results in weak self-efficacy
internal locus of control
according to bandura if we have this, we feel as if we have complete power over a situation and have high levels of self-efficacy
martin seligman
this psychologists studied learned helplessness in dogs
learned helplessness
this is a psychological state where people feel powerless to change their self or situation in which a person feels as if change is not possible and eventually gives up
optimisitc attributional style
from the cognitive perspective, individuals with this see the world in a positive light
pessimistic attributional style
from the cognitive perspective, individuals with this see theworld in a negative light
possible selves
this is defined as an individuals' ideas of what they might become, what they would like to become, or what they are afraid of becoming
splotlight effect
this refers to our tendency to think that other people are watching us more closely than they actually are
self serving bias
this occurs when people attribute their successes to internal or personal factors but attribute their failures to situational factors beyond their control