Chapter 8 - Metabolism
All of the chemical reactions of the cell are called:
The breakdown of peptidoglycan to N-acetylmuramic acid, N-acetylglucosamine and peptides is an example of:
B. proteins that function as catalysts.
Formation of peptide bonds between amino acids to build a polypeptide would be called:
contains the active site, contains the active site
A holoenzyme is a combination of a protein and one or more substances called:
Important components of coenzymes are:
Enzymes that can function at boiling water temperatures or other harsh conditions would be termed:
Enzymes that are produced only when substrate is present are termed:
10. Enzymes that catalyze removing electrons from one substrate and adding electrons to another are called:
11. When enzyme action stops due to a buildup of end product this control is called:
A. negative feedback.
Most electron carriers are:
C. occur during aerobic cellular respiration.
In the cell, energy released by electrons is often used to phosphorylate:
In addition to electrons, which of the following is also involved in electron transfer?
The most likely place where an exoenzyme participates in a chemical reaction is:
E. outside of the cell.
All of the following are exoenzymes, except:
All of the following pertain to glycolysis, except it:
degrades glucose to CO2 and H2O.
The formation of citric acid from oxaloacetic acid and an acetyl group begins:
The step involving ATP, hexokinase, and the phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate is:
an example of substrate-level phosphorylation.
During aerobic cellular respiration, the final electron acceptor is:
Which of the following is NOT involved in the step that occurs between glycolysis and the TCA cycle?
E. pyruvic acid accepts electrons from NADH
In bacterial cells, the electron transport system is located in the:
A. cell membrane.
In which pathway is the most NADH generated?
B. Krebs cycle
The reactions of fermentation function to produce _____ molecules for use in glycolysis.
During which of the phases of cellular respiration is the majority of ATP formed?
A. electron transport
In bacterial cells, when glucose is completely oxidized by all the pathways of aerobic cellular respiration, how many ATP are generated?
E. 38 ATP
When glucose is broken down by glycolysis during bacterial fermentation, how many ATP are generated?
A. 2 ATP
Each NADH that enters the electron transport system gives rise to _____ ATP.
As the electron transport carriers shuttle electrons, they actively pump _____ into the outer membrane compartment setting up a concentration gradient called the proton motive force.
C. hydrogen ions
Mixed acid fermentation:
C) produces acids plus CO2 and H2 gases.
Anaerobic cellular respiration:
D) utilizes an electron transport system.
Each FADH2 that enters the electron transport system gives rise to _____ ATP.
In anaerobic respiration, all of the following can serve as the final electron acceptor, except:
Enteric bacteria commonly occupy the human intestine and primarily produce:
A. CO2 and H2gases.
The process of alcoholic fermentation produces:
C. alcohol and carbon dioxide.
Cyanide will cause rapid death in humans because it:
D. blocks cytochrome c oxidase.
Why is cyanide harmless to some bacteria?
C. They lack cytochrome c oxidase.
Fatty acids can be metabolized by entering:
the TCA cycle
Enzymes that are regularly found in a cell are termed:
C. constitutive enzymes.
When amino acids are deaminated, they can be used as a source of:
In eukaryotes, glycolysis takes place:
E. in the cytoplasm.
In eukaryotes, the Krebs cycle takes place:
D. in the mitochondria.
Photosynthesis is responsible for producing >50% of Earth's oxygen. During photosynthesis inorganic __ is fixed into organic compounds like___ without the help of sunlight.
B. CO2, C6H12O6
In the eukaryote, the respiratory chain is located in the ___, whereas the majority of ATP is produced by the respiratory chain in the _______ of a prokaryote.
C. Mitochondria, outer membrane space
ATP molecules are catalysts that lower the activation energy needed to initiate a reaction.
Hydrolysis reactions are catabolic reactions that use water to split the reactant into smaller subunits.
ATP synthase is a complex enzyme needed for oxidative phosphorylation.
Only yeast produces alcohol as a fermentation product.
Facultative anaerobes can utilize aerobic cellular respiration when oxygen is present and fermentation when oxygen is in low supply.
51. All aerobic bacterial species have identical electron acceptors in their electron transport systems.
52. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate is an intermediary of glycolysis that can also be utilized in biosynthetic pathways.
54. Building block molecules for biosynthetic pathways come from the cell's catabolic pathways and from the environment. True False
55. The cell's metabolic reactions involve the participation of _____ that lower the activation energy needed for the initiation of a reaction.
56. _____ reactions are anabolic reactions involving ligases for synthesis and the release of one water molecule for each bond formed.
57. FAD, NADP, NAD, and coenzyme A are all _____ carriers.
58. The redox carriers of the electron transport chain that have a tightly bound metal atom responsible for accepting and donating electrons are the _____.
Each FADH2 from the Kerbs cycle enters the electron transport system and gives rise to _____ ATP's.
Metabolic pathways that are bidirectional are called _____ pathways.
_____ enzymes have an active site, and an additional regulatory site for non-substrate attachment.
_____ testing can differentiate between bacterial species fermentation that produce mixed acids or 2, 3 butanediol.
63. Amination is the addition of a/an _____ group to a carbon skeleton.