44 terms

Extra Credit Poetic Devices

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ALLITERATION
Repetition of the same or similar consonant sounds in words that are
close together.
ALLUSION
Reference to someone or something that is known from history, literature,
religion, politics, sports, science, or another branch of culture. An indirect reference to
something (usually from literature, etc.).
AMBIGUITY
Deliberately suggesting two or more different, and sometimes conflicting,
meanings in a work. An event or situation that may be interpreted in more than one way-
- this is done on purpose by the author, when it is not done on purpose, it is vagueness,
and detracts from the work.
ANAPHORA
Repetition of a word, phrase, or clause at the beginning of two or more
sentences in a row. This is a deliberate form of repetition and helps make the writer's
point more coherent.
ANASTROPHE
Inversion of the usual, normal, or logical order of the parts of a
sentence. Purpose is rhythm or emphasis or euphony. It is a fancy word for inversion.
ANTHROPOMORPHISM
Attributing human characteristics to an animal or inanimate
object (Personification)
APHORISM
Brief, cleverly worded statement that makes a wise observation about life,
or of a principle or accepted general truth. Also called maxim, epigram.
ASSONANCE
The repetition of similar vowel sounds followed by different consonant
sounds especially in words that are togethe
CHIASMUS
In poetry, a type of rhetorical balance in which the second part is
syntactically balanced against the first, but with the parts reversed.
CONFESSIONAL POETRY
A twentieth century term used to describe poetry that uses
intimate material from the poet's life.
DICTION
A speaker or writer's choice of words
ELEGY
A poem of mourning, usually about someone who has died. A Eulogy is great
praise or commendation, a laudatory speech, often about someone who has died.
EPANALEPSIS
Device of repetition in which the same expression (single word or
phrase) is repeated both at the beginning and at the end of the line, clause, or sentence.
Voltaire: "Common sense is not so common."
EPIC
A long narrative poem, written in heightened language , which recounts the deeds
of a heroic character who embodies the values of a particular society
EPISTROPHE
Device of repetition in which the same expression (single word or
phrase) is repeated at the end of two or more lines, clauses, or sentences (it is the opposite
of anaphora).
FABLE
A very short story told in prose or poetry that teaches a practical lesson about
how to succeed in life.
FREE VERSE
Poetry that does not conform to a regular meter or rhyme scheme.
HYPERBOLE
A figure of speech that uses an incredible exaggeration or overstatement,
for effect. "If I told you once, I've told you a million times...."
IMAGERY
The use of language to evoke a picture or a concrete sensation of a person ,
a thing, a place, or an experience.
INVERSION
The reversal of the normal word order in a sentence or phrase.
JUXTAPOSITION
Poetic and rhetorical device in which normally unassociated ideas,
words, or phrases are placed next to one another, creating an effect of surprise and wit.
Ezra Pound: "The apparition of these faces in the crowd;/ Petals on a wet, black bough."
Juxtaposition is also a form of contrast by which writers call attention to
dissimilar ideas or images or metaphors.
LYRIC POEM
A poem that does not tell a story but expresses the personal feelings or
thoughts of the speaker. A ballad tells a story.
METAPHOR
A figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things
without the use of such specific words of comparison as like, as, than, or resembles.
IMPLIED METAPHOR
Does not state explicitly the two terms of the
comparison: "I like to see it lap the miles" is an implied metaphor in which the
verb lap implies a comparison between "it" and some animal that "laps" up
water
EXTENDED METAPHOR
A metaphor that is extended or developed as far
as the writer wants to take it. (conceit if it is quite elaborate).
DEAD METAPHOR
A metaphor that has been used so often that the
comparison is no longer vivid: "The head of the house", "the seat of the
government", "a knotty problem" are all dead metaphors.
MIXED METAPHOR
A metaphor that has gotten out of control and mixes
its terms so that they are visually or imaginatively incompatible. "The President
is a lame duck who is running out of gas."
MOOD
An atmosphere created by a writer's diction and the details selected.
ONOMATOPOEIA
The use of words whose sounds echo their sense. "Pop." "Zap."
OXYMORON
A figure of speech that combines opposite or contradictory terms in a
brief phrase. "Jumbo shrimp." "Pretty ugly." "Bitter-sweet"
PARODY
A work that makes fun of another work by imitating some aspect of the
writer's style.
PERSONIFICATION
A figure of speech in which an object or animal is given human
feelings, thoughts, or attitudes.
PUN
A "play on words" based on the multiple meanings of a single word or on words
that sound alike but mean different things.
REFRAIN
A word, phrase, line, or group of lines that is repeated, for effect, several
times in a poem.
SATIRE
A type of writing that ridicules the shortcomings of people or institutions in an
attempt to bring about a change.
SIMILE
A figure of speech that makes an explicit comparison between two unlike
things, using words such as like, as , than, or resembles.
STYLE
The distinctive way in which a writer uses language: a writer's distinctive use of
diction, tone, and syntax.
SYMBOL
A person, place, thing, or event that has meaning in itself and that also stands
for something more than itself.
SYNECDOCHE
A figure of speech in which a part represents the whole. "If you don't
drive properly, you will lose your wheels." The wheels represent the entire car.
THEME
The insight about human life that is revealed in a literary work.
TONE
The attitude a writer takes toward the subject of a work, the characters in it, or
the audience, revealed through diction, figurative language, and organization.
UNDERSTATEMENT
A statement that says less than what is meant.
MODERNISM
A term for the bold new experimental styles and forms that swept the
arts during the first third of the twentieth century.
Chremamorphism
Giving characteristics of an object to a person.
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