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Redi, Needham, Spallanzani, and Pasteur Experiments (From Chapter 1 Study Guide)
Terms in this set (30)
Francisco Redi's Experiment
What was Redi's observations of the appearance of maggots on uncovered meat?
Flies will land in the meat that is not covered
What was Redi's hypothesis?
Flies produce maggots
Did Redi support biogenesis or abiogenesis?
What were the controlled variables in Redi's experiment?
The jars, meat, lovation, temperature, and the time the jars were observed
What was the manipulated/independent variable in Redi's experiment?
The guaze covering over the jars
What was the responding/depended varible in Redi's experiment?
The maggots appearing
What was Redi's conclusion based on his findings?
Maggots only form when flies come in contact with meat. Spontaneous generation did not occur
Should Redi accept his hypothesis?
John Needham Experiment
What was John Needham's hypothesis based on his research of Anton van Leeuwenhoek's "aminalcules"?
Boiling broth would kill all of the living things in it
Did Needham support biogenesis or abiogenesis?
How did Needham change Redi's experiment?
The chicken broth was boiled
What inference did Needham make?
Microorganisms came from the gravy
What did Needham find?
He found that maggots maggots in the broth days after it was boiled
Lorenzo Spallanzali Experiment
What was Spallanzali's hypothesis?
Microbes come from the air. Boiling will kill microbes
Did Spallanzali support biogenesis or abiogenesis?
What was the manipulated variable in Spallanzali's experiment?
The seal on the flasks
What variables were kept the same or controlled in the experiment?
Boiling the gravy, same flask, same gravy, same temperature
Did Spallanzali accept or reject his hypothesis?
What did he use as evidence?
More microbes were found in the open flask
Louis Pasteur Experiment
Why did scientists reject the findings of Spallanzali?
Air was excluded from the jar
What was Pasteur's hypothesis?
Microbes came from cells of organisms on dusts particles in the air
Why did Pasteur design an S-shaped flask to use in his experiment?
It allowed some air into the flask
What happened when Pasteur broke the neck of the flask?
Microbes entered the flask
What is pasteurization?
Pasteurization is exposing food to raised temperatures to kill microorganisms in the food
Under what conditions will scientists resort to using large population sizes?
When experiments are not possible (to observe animals in their habitat, new medicine trials, large samples, ect...)
When can a scientist's hypothesis become a theory?
When the hypothesis becomes well known and supported
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